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Management (MGH)
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Part 1 An Introduction
Organizational Behaviour and Management
What Are Organizations?
Def: Social inventions for accomplishing common goals through group effort.
Social inventions The coordinated presence of people.
=> OB: understanding people and managing them to work effectively
Goal Accomplishment Organizational survival and adaptation to change are
important goals.
Behaviours necessary for survival and adaptation:
Motivated to join the remain in organization
Carry out basic work reliably, in terms of productivity, quality, and
Willing to continuously learn and upgrade knowledge and skills
Flexible and innovative
Group Effort Interaction and coordination among people to accomplish goals.
What Is Organizational Behaviour?
Def: The attitudes and behaviours of individuals and groups in organizations.
Study How organizations can be structured more effectively.
Study How events in the external environment affect organizations.
Why Study Organizational Behaviour?
Organizational behaviour is interesting. It is about people and human nature.
Organizational behaviour is important to managers, employees, and consumers.
Understanding it can make them more effective
Organizational behaviour makes a difference.
Organizational behaviour affects individuals’ attitudes and behaviour as well
as the competitiveness and effectiveness of organizations.

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Goals of Organizational Behaviour
Predicting organizational behaviour and events.
OB provides as scientific foundation that helps improve predictions of
organizational events (it is not always accurate)
Explaining organizational behaviour and events in organizations.
Interested in determining why ppl are more or less motivated, satisfied, or
prone to resign
Explaining is complicated b/c
1) a particular behaviour could have multiple causes
2) the underlying causes of some events or behaviour can change over
time (eg. Reasons ppl quit may vary greatly depending on the overall
economy and whether there is high or low unemployment)
Managing organizational behaviour.
Management is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations through
Prediction and explanation involves analysis while management is about action.
Early Prescriptions Concerning Management
Attempts to prescribe the correct way to manage an organization and achieve its
Classical view and bureacuracy
Human relations view
The Classical View and Bureaucracy
The classical view advocates a high degree of specialization of labour and
coordination and centralized decision making.
Scientific management is Fredericks Taylors system for using research to determine
the optimum degree of specialization and standardization.
Bureaucracy is Max Webers ideal type of organization that includes:

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Strict chain of command (in which each member reports to only a single
Selection and promotion criteria based on technical competence (rather than
nepotism or favouritism)
Detailed rules, regulations, and procedures(ensuring that the job gets done
regardless of who the specific worker is.)
High specialization (to match duties with technical competence)
Centralization of power at the top of the organization
Human Relations Movement & a Critique of Bureaucracy
Began w/ famous Hawthorne Studies of 1920s & 1930s conducted at Hawthorne
plant of Western Electric.
Concerned w/ impact of fatigue, rest pauses, & lighting on employee
Illustrated how psychological & social processes affect productivity & work
Suggested there could be dysfunctional aspects to how work was organized.
Human Relations Movement
Called attention to certain dysfunctional aspects of classical management &
Advocated more people-oriented & participative styles of management that
catered more to social & psychological needs of employees.
Called for adoption of more flexible systems of management & design of more
interesting jobs.
Critique of bureaucracy addressed several specific problems:
Pg 13
Contemporary Management The Contingency Approach
The general answer to many of the problems in organizations is: It depends.
Dependencies are called contingencies.
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