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Management (MGH)
Course Code
Samantha Montes

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Leadership 10/13/2014
What is Leadership?
Leadership: the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an
organizational context
Strategic leadership: leadership that involves the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility,
think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future for the
Are Leaders Born? The Trait Theory of Leadership
Trait theory of leadership: leadership depends on the personal qualities or traits of the leader
Research on Leadership Traits
Traits: individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality
Limitations of the Trait Approach
The Behavior of Leaders
Consideration and Initiating Structure
Consideration: the extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect
for employees
Initiating Structure: the degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment
The Consequences of Consideration and Structure
Leader Reward and Punishment Behaviors
Leader reward behavior: the leader’s use of compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special
Leader punishment behavior: the leader’s use of reprimands or unfavorable task assignments and
the active withholding of rewards
Situational Theories of Leadership

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Fiedler’s Contingency Theory and Cognitive Resource Theory
Contingency theory: Fred Fiedler’s theory that states that the association between leadership
orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favorable the situation is for exerting influence
Least preferred co-worker: a current or past co-worker with whom a leader has had a difficult time
accomplishing a task
Cognitive resource theory: a leadership theory that focuses on the conditions in which a leader’s
cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise, and experience) contribute to effective leadership
Research Evidence
House’s Path-Goal Theory
Path-goal theory: Robert House’s theory concerned with the situations under which various leader
behaviors (directive, supportive, participative, achievement oriented) are most effective
The Theory
Leader Behavior
Directive behavior
Supportive behavior
Participative behavior
Achievement-oriented behavior
Situational Factors
Research Evidence
Participative Leadership: Involving Employees in Decisions
What is Participation?
Participative leadership: involving employees in making work-related decisions
Potential Advantages of Participative Leadership
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