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MGHB02H3 Study Guide - Work Motivation, Goal Setting, Motivation


Department
Management (MGH)
Course Code
MGHB02H3
Professor
Samantha Montes

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Theories of Work Motivation 10/13/2014
Why Study Motivation?
What is Motivation?
Basic Characteristics of Motivation
Motivation: the extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal
Effort
Persistence
Direction
Goals
Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation
Intrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the work and the task;
it is usually self-applied
Extrinsic motivation: motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task; it is
usually applied by others
Self-determination theory: a theory of motivation that considers whether people’s motivation is
autonomous or controlled
Autonomous motivation: when people are self-motivated by intrinsic factors
Controlled motivation: when people are motivated to obtain a desired consequence or extrinsic
reward
Motivation and Performance
Performance: the extent to which an organizational member contributes to achieving the objectives of
the organization
General Cognitive Ability
General cognitive ability: a person’s basic information-processing capacities and cognitive
resources
Emotional Intelligence
Emotional intelligence: the ability to understand and manage one’s own and other’s feelings and
emotions
1. Perceiving emotions accurately in oneself and others
2. Using emotions to facilitate thinking
3. Understanding emotions, emotional language, and the signals conveyed by
emotion
4. Managing emotions so as to attain specific goals
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The Motivation-Performance Relationship
Need Theories of Work Motivation
Needs  Behaviour  Incentives and Goals
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
Physiological needs
Safety needs
Belongingness
Esteem
Self-actualization
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: a five-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies that
the lowest-level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating potential
Alderfers ERG Theory
ERG theory: a three-level hierarchical need theory of motivation that allows for movement up and down
the hierarchy
1. Existence needs
2. Relatedness needs
3. Growth needs
McClelland’s Theory of Needs
McClelland’s theory of needs: a nonhierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the
conditions under which certain needs result, in particular patterns of motivation
Need for achievement: a strong desire to perform challenging tasks well
Individuals with a high need for achievement exhibit the following..
A preference for situations in which personal responsibility can be taken for outcomes
A tendency to set moderately difficult goals that provide for calculated risks
A desire for performance feedback
Need for affiliation: a strong desire to establish and maintain friendly, compatible interpersonal
relationships
Need for power: a strong desire to influence others, making a significant impact or impression
Research Support for Need Theories
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