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Management (MGH)
Course Code
Samantha Montes

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Communication 10/13/2014
What is Communication?
Communication: the process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver
Effective communication: communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a
timely manner
Basics of Organizational Communication
Communication by Strict Chain of Command
Chain of command: lines of authority and formal reporting relationships
Downward communication: information that flows from the top of the organization toward the
Upward communication: information that flows from the bottom of the organization toward the top
Horizontal communication: information that flows between departments or functional units, usually
as a means of coordinating effort
Deficiencies in the Chain of Command
Informal Communication
Filtering: the tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission
Voice, Silence and the Mum Effect
Voice: the constructive expression of disagreement or concern about work unit or organizational practices
Psychological safety: a shared belief that it is safe to take social risks
Mum effect: the tendency to avoid communicating unfavorable news to others
The Grapevine
Characteristics of the Grapevine
Grapevine: an organization’s informal communication network
Who Participates in the Grapevine?
Pros and Cons of the Grapevine
Rumor: an unverified belief that is in general circulation
The Verbal Language of Work
Jargon: specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or organizations
The Non-verbal Language of Work
Non-verbal communication: the transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or
Body Language: non-verbal communication by means of a sender’s bodily motions, facial expressions,
or physical location
Props, Artifacts, and Costumes
Office Décor and Arrangement
Does Clothing Communicate?
Gender Differences in Communication
Getting credit
Confidence and boasting
Asking questions
Ritual opposition
Managing up and down
Cross-Cultural Communication
Language Differences
Non-verbal Communication across Cultures
Facial expressions
Etiquette and Politeness across Cultures
Social Conventions across Cultures
Cultural context: the cultural information that surrounds a communication episode
Computer-mediated Communication
Information richness: the potential information-carrying capacity of a communication medium
Computer-mediated communication: forms of communication that rely on computer technology
to facilitate information exchange
Personal Approaches to Improving Communication
Basic Principles of Effective Communication
Take the time
Be accepting of the other person
Do not confuse the person with the problem
Say what you feel
Congruence: a condition in which a person’s words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the
same message
Listen actively
Active listening: a technique for improving the accuracy of information reception by paying close
attention to the sender
Watch your body language
Paraphrase what the speaker means
Show empathy
Ask questions
Wait out pauses