Chapter 13 Notes(include lecture notes)

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1 Apr 2011
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Chapter 13
Interpersonal conflict / Conflict: A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has
negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about (e.g., goal
attainment).
- frustrates the goal attainment of another
-involves antagonistic attitudes (i.e. name, calling, sabotage, physical aggression)
๎€Dysfunctional Conflict: Hinders group performance
๎€Functional Conflict: Supports the goals of the group and improves performance
Sources of Conflict
1. Scarce Resources โ€“ common resources in short supply๎€‚ magnify differences in power
- sufficient quantities = buffers; turn latent conflict into overt conflict
2. Ambiguity performance criteria (jurisdiction and responsibility) โ€“ formal and informal roles that
govern interaction break down ๎€‚ difficult to determine responsibility
3. Intergroup Bias (in-group vs. out-group) โ€“ develop a more positive view โ€œin-groupโ€ and a less positive
view of โ€œout-groupsโ€ (not a member)
-โ€œultimate fundamental attribution errorโ€
-Define in-group carefully
-Use super-ordinate goals
4. Differences in Power, Status, Culture
Power โ€“ dependence is one-way(not mutual) = imbalance in power
Status โ€“ reversal of expected roles
Culture โ€“ very different cultures = clash in beliefs and values
5. Value Clashes
6. Personality Clashes
7. Interdependence โ€“ individuals or subunits are mutually dependent on each other to accomplish their
own goals; abuse of power in such relationships and on-going need for coordination
Relationship conflict โ€“ interpersonal tensions among individuals; above their relationship per se, not task (i.e.
personality clashes)
Task conflict โ€“ disagreements about the nature of the work to be done (differences of opinion about goals)
Process conflict โ€“ disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished (i.e. about
responsibility, authority, resource allocation, task distribution)
Conflict Dynamics
-winning becomes important
-parties conceal information from each other
-each group becomes more cohesive
-discourage contact with the opposite part
-negative stereotypes of the opposite party develop
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Conflict Management Style
Avoiding (limited effectiveness )- A person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it
or suppress it; โ†“
assertiveness and โ†“
cooperation
Useful in these situations:
๎€When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing
๎€When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns
๎€When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution
๎€To let people cool down and regain perspective
๎€When gathering information supersedes immediate decision
๎€When others can resolve the conflict more effectively
Accommodating (sign of weakness) - One party seeks to appease an opponent by placing the opponentโ€™s
interests above his/her own; โ†“
assertiveness and cooperation
Useful in these situations:
๎€When you find youโ€™re wrong and to allow a better position to be heard, and to show your
reasonableness
๎€When issues are more important to others than yourself and to satisfy others and maintain
cooperation
๎€To build social credits for later issues
๎€To minimize loss when you are outmatched and losing
๎€When harmony and stability are especially important
๎€To allow others to develop by learning from mistakes
Competing (framed in strict win-lose terms ) - When one person seeks to satisfy his/her own interests,
regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict; assertiveness and โ†“
cooperation
Useful in these situations:
๎€When quick, decisive action is vital (emergencies)
๎€On important issues when unpopular actions need implementing (cost-cutting, discipline)
๎€On issues vital to the organizationโ€™s welfare when you know youโ€™re right
๎€Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior
Collaborating (win-win solution) - problem solving approach ๎€‚ clarify differences r/t by fully satisfying the
interests of both parties; assertiveness and cooperation
- enhance productivity and achievement
Useful in these situations:
๎€To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised
๎€When your objective is to learn
๎€To merge insights from people with different perspectives
๎€To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus
๎€To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship
Compromising - When each party seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised
outcome; intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation
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Document Summary

functional conflict: supports the goals of the group and improves performance. Scarce resources common resources in short supply magnify differences in power. Sufficient quantities = buffers; turn latent conflict into overt conflict: ambiguity performance criteria (jurisdiction and responsibility) formal and informal roles that govern interaction break down difficult to determine responsibility. Intergroup bias (in-group vs. out-group) develop a more positive view in-group and a less positive view of out-groups (not a member) Use super-ordinate goals: differences in power, status, culture. Power dependence is one-way(not mutual) = imbalance in power. Culture very different cultures = clash in beliefs and values: value clashes. Interdependence individuals or subunits are mutually dependent on each other to accomplish their own goals; abuse of power in such relationships and on-going need for coordination. Relationship conflict interpersonal tensions among individuals; above their relationship per se, not task (i. e. personality clashes)

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