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Chapter 13 Notes(include lecture notes)

Management (MGH)
Course Code
Samantha Montes

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Chapter 13
Interpersonal conflict / Conflict: A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has
negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about (e.g., goal
- frustrates the goal attainment of another
-involves antagonistic attitudes (i.e. name, calling, sabotage, physical aggression)
Dysfunctional Conflict: Hinders group performance
Functional Conflict: Supports the goals of the group and improves performance
Sources of Conflict
1. Scarce Resourcescommon resources in short supply magnify differences in power
- sufficient quantities = buffers; turn latent conflict into overt conflict
2. Ambiguity performance criteria (jurisdiction and responsibility) – formal and informal roles that
govern interaction break down difficult to determine responsibility
3. Intergroup Bias (in-group vs. out-group) – develop a more positive viewin-group” and a less positive
view of “out-groups (not a member)
-ultimate fundamental attribution error”
-Define in-group carefully
-Use super-ordinate goals
4. Differences in Power, Status, Culture
Power – dependence is one-way(not mutual) = imbalance in power
Status – reversal of expected roles
Culture – very different cultures = clash in beliefs and values
5. Value Clashes
6. Personality Clashes
7. Interdependence – individuals or subunits are mutually dependent on each other to accomplish their
own goals; abuse of power in such relationships and on-going need for coordination
Relationship conflictinterpersonal tensions among individuals; above their relationship per se, not task (i.e.
personality clashes)
Task conflictdisagreements about the nature of the work to be done (differences of opinion about goals)
Process conflict – disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished (i.e. about
responsibility, authority, resource allocation, task distribution)
Conflict Dynamics
-winning becomes important
-parties conceal information from each other
-each group becomes more cohesive
-discourage contact with the opposite part
-negative stereotypes of the opposite party develop

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Conflict Management Style
Avoiding (limited effectiveness )- A person may recognize that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it
or suppress it;
assertiveness and
Useful in these situations:
When an issue is trivial, or more important issues are pressing
When you perceive no chance of satisfying your concerns
When potential disruption outweighs the benefits of resolution
To let people cool down and regain perspective
When gathering information supersedes immediate decision
When others can resolve the conflict more effectively
Accommodating (sign of weakness) - One party seeks to appease an opponent by placing the opponents
interests above his/her own;
assertiveness and cooperation
Useful in these situations:
When you find youre wrong and to allow a better position to be heard, and to show your
When issues are more important to others than yourself and to satisfy others and maintain
To build social credits for later issues
To minimize loss when you are outmatched and losing
When harmony and stability are especially important
To allow others to develop by learning from mistakes
Competing (framed in strict win-lose terms ) - When one person seeks to satisfy his/her own interests,
regardless of the impact on the other parties to the conflict; assertiveness and
Useful in these situations:
When quick, decisive action is vital (emergencies)
On important issues when unpopular actions need implementing (cost-cutting, discipline)
On issues vital to the organizations welfare when you know youre right
Against people who take advantage of noncompetitive behavior
Collaborating (win-win solution) - problem solving approach clarify differences r/t by fully satisfying the
interests of both parties; assertiveness and cooperation
- enhance productivity and achievement
Useful in these situations:
To find an integrative solution when both sets of concerns are too important to be compromised
When your objective is to learn
To merge insights from people with different perspectives
To gain commitment by incorporating concerns into a consensus
To work through feelings that have interfered with a relationship
Compromising - When each party seeks to give up something, sharing occurs, resulting in a compromised
outcome; intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation
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