dominating the first half of the group’s life. Although it gathers information and holds
meetings, the group makes little visible progress toward the goal.
! Midpoint Transition: Occurs at the halfway point towards the deadline. Marks a
change in the group’s approach, and how the group manages it is critical for the group to
show progress. The group must move forward and may seek outside advice. The transition
may consolidate previously acquired information or even mark a completely new
approach, but it crystallizes the group’s activities for Phase 2 just like the first meeting did
for Phase 1.
! Phase 2: Decisions and approaches adopted at the midpoint get played out in Phase 2. It
concludes with a final meeting that reveals a burst of activity and a concern for how
outsiders will evaluate the product.
! Advice Given By Punctuated Equilibrium Model: Prepare carefully for first meeting, do
not look for radical progress during Phase 1, Manage the midpoint transition carefully,
Ensure adequate resources for Phase 2, Resist deadline changes.
Group Structure and its Consequences
! Group structure: refers to the characteristics of the stable social organization of a group –
the way a group is “put together”. They vary by size and member diversity, norms, roles,
status, and cohesiveness.
! Group Size: Smallest consists of at least two people but most work groups usually have
between 3 and 20 people.
! Size and satisfaction: Members of larger groups consistently report less satisfaction
with group members than smaller groups. Large amounts of time and energy is needed to
develop friendships with team members, teams have to incorporate more viewpoints,
experience conflict and dissension. Time available for Individual participation also decreases,
and people become inhibited and can less identify with successes of a larger group.
! Size and performance: It depends on the task
! Additive Tasks: Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the sum of the
performance of individual group members. Increases with group size. Eg. House
! Disjunctive tasks: Tasks in which group performance is dependent on the
performance of the best group member. Increases with group size.
! Process losses: Group performance difficulties stemming from the problems of
motivating and coordinating larger groups.
! Conjunctive tasks: Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance
of the poorest group member.
! Potential performance and process losses increase with group size for additive and
disjunctive tasks. Net effect: Actual performance increases up to a certain point and then
falls off. Average performance of group members decreases as size gets bigger. Up to a
point, larger groups might perform better as groups, but their individual members tend
to be less efficient.