Charisma. The ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers and thus have the potential for strong
influence among them.
Classical viewpoint. An early prescription on management that advocated high specialization of labour, intensive
coordination, and centralized decision making.
Coercive power. Power derived from the use of punishment and threat.
Cognitive biases. Tendencies to acquire and process information in an error-prone way.
Collaborating. A conflict management style that maximizes both assertiveness and cooperation.
Communication. The process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver.
Competing. A conflict management style that maximizes assertiveness and minimizes cooperation.
Complexity. The extent to which an organization divides labour vertically, horizontally, and geographically.
Compliance. Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment.
Compressed workweek. An alternative work schedule in which employees work fewer than the normal five days a
week but still put in a normal number of hours per week.
Compromise. A conflict management style that combines intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation.
Computer-mediated communication (CMC). Communication that relies on computer technology to facilitate
Confirmation bias. The tendency to seek out information that conforms to one’s own definition of or solution to a
Conflict stimulation. A strategy of increasing conflict to motivate change.
Congruence. A condition in which a person’s words, thoughts, feelings, and actions all contain the same message.
Conjunctive tasks. Tasks in which group performance is limited by the performance of the poorest group member.
Consensus cues. Attribution cues that reflect how a person’s behaviour compares with that of others.
Conservative shift. The tendency for groups to make less risky decisions than the average risk initially advocated by
their individual members.
Consideration. The extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees.
Consistency cues. Attribution cues that reflect how consistently a person engages in some behaviour over time.
Contingency approach. An approach to management that recognizes that there is no one best way to manage, and
that an appropriate management style depends on the demands of the situation.
Contingency Theory. Fred Fiedler’s theory that states that the association between leadership orientation and group
effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence.
Continuance commitment. Commitment based on the costs that would be incurred in leaving an organization.
Contrast effects. Previously interviewed job applicants affect an interviewer’s perception of a current applicant,
leading to an exaggeration of differences between applicants.
Control group. A group of research subjects who have not been exposed to the experimental treatment.
Convergent validity. When there is a strong relationship between different measures of the same variable.
Coordination. A process of facilitating timing, communication, and feedback among work tasks.
Core self-evaluations. A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits that reflect the evaluations
people hold about themselves and their self-worth.
Correlational research. Research that attempts to measure variables precisely and examine relationships among
these variables without introducing change into the research setting.
Creativity. The production of novel but potentially useful ideas.
Cross-functional teams. Work groups that bring people with different functional specialties together to better invent,
design, or deliver a product or service.
Cultural context. The cultural information that surrounds a communication episode.
Customer departmentation. Relatively self-contained units deliver an organization’s products or services to specific
Decision making. The process of developing a commitment to some course of action.