minimum of effort or comparison. Business services include maintenance and repair
services and business advisory services. Such services are usually supplied under contract.
The distinction between a consumer product and a business product is based on the purpose
for which the product is bought.
Organization marketing consists of activities undertaken to create, maintain, or change the
attitudes and behavior of target consumers toward an organization. It is practiced by both
profit and non-profit organizations. Business firms sponsor public relations or corporate
image advertising campaigns to market themselves and polish their images.
Person marketing consists of activities undertaken to create, maintain, or change attitudes
or behavior toward particular people. The skilful use of marketing can turn a person’s name
into a powerhouse brand.
Place marketing involves activities undertaken to create, maintain, or change attitudes or
behavior toward particular places.
Ideas can also be marketed. In one sense, all marketing is the marketing of an idea.
Social marketing: the use of commercial marketing concepts and tools in programs designed
to influence individuals’ behavior to improve their well-being and that of society
*Social Marketing Institute (SMI) encourages the use of a broad range of marketing tools,
well beyond the promotional P of the marketing mix to include every other element to
achieve its social change objectives.
Product and service attributes include
Product quality: the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy
stated or implied customer needs
*It has a direct impact on product or service performance; thus, it is closely linked to
customer value and satisfaction. In the narrowest sense, quality can be defined as “freedom
from defects”. However, most-customer-centred companies go beyond and define quality in
terms of creating customer value and satisfaction. The American Society for Quality defines
quality as the characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated
or implied customer needs. Similarly, Siemens defines quality this way: “Quality is when
our customers come back and our products don’t.”
Total Quality Management (TQM) is an approach in which all the company’s people are
involved in constantly improving the quality of products, services, and business processes.
Today, companies are taking a “return on quality” approach, viewing quality as an
investment and holding quality efforts accountable for bottom-line results.