moral theory: pragmatic justification is if you want x to be the case, then set up the necessary and sufficient conditions to maximize the probability that x will be the case. rational self interest argument: adopting the rule (to not kill innocent people) makes the world a safer place for you and those you love, so you should adopt the rule. Frequently referred to as a kind of consequentialist theory. evaluate what actions they should take or what rules they should follow based upon the best information/estimate of what consequences will follow from adopting particular actions/rules. Founded by the leader of the philosophical radicals , jeremy bentham and james. grounded in the belief that an action was right if and only if such action, on balance brought more good over bad than any other actions that was possible. good, not in a self interested way, but as a good for the good of all.