Feedback Effectiveness: Can 360 degree appraisals be improved?
- When employees do not receive feedback from their job, they will seek it on their own
- Although feedback interventions were usually effective, in more than one third of the
cases feedback actually lowered subsequent performance
Does Feedback Work?
- Usually, but not always. In some conditions, feedback appeared to actually lower
How does Feedback Operate?
- The effectiveness of any feedback intervention depends on the level at which the
intervention focuses our attention
At Which Level of Attention Should We Focus Feedback Interventions?
- Feedback interventions that focus our attention at the level of the self can interfere with
subsequent performance by diverting attention away from the task to questions of who
we really are
- Feedback most typically focuses attention at the level of task performance. Feedback at
this level is generally useful, but its usefulness depends on many factors
- If efforts to improve performance fail, or if feedback otherwise focuses on details of
performance without providing a means for improvement, attention will become focused
on the task learning level
- If the feedback provides enough information for the person to form correct hypotheses
about how to improve performance, attention at this level will eventually lead to
improved performance. Otherwise, attention will focus on detail only, and performance
- If feedback focuses attention at the level of the self because it is personalized, or because
the task in question is closely related to the person¶s self concept, subsequent
performance will typically suffer, as the person¶s attention will be distracted from task
improvement. But even the induced attention to the self are likely to be further
complicated by the meaning of the task for the feedback recipient
- If the task in question is one the person wants to work at, and the feedback is positive, or
the task is one the person must work at and the feedback is negative, subsequent
performance is likely to improve
- If the task in question is one the person wants to work at, and the feedback is negative, or
the task is one the person must work at and the feedback is positive, subsequent
performance is likely to decline
What Other Factors Influence the Effects of Feedback?