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MGTA01H3 Study Guide - Job Satisfaction, Reinforcement

Management (MGT)
Course Code
Chris Bovaird

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Chapter 10: Motivating & Leading Employees
Psychological Contracts: The set of expectations help by an employee concerning what he or she
will contribute to an organization(contributions) and what the organization will provide the
employee(inducements) in return
All organizations face the basic challenge of managing psychological contracts
Massive wave of downsizing and cutbacks have complicated the process of managing psychological
if psychological contracts are created, maintained and manage effectively the result is likely to be
workers who are satisfied and motivated
Human relations: Interactions between employers and employees and their attitudes toward one
Job satisfaction: The pleasure and feeling of accomplishment employees derive from performing
their jobs well
satisfied employees have high morale- the overall attitude of employees toward their workplace
¾ determined by job satisfaction, and satisfaction with pay, benefits, co-workers and promotion
Ensuring employees are satisfied=management gains (b/c more efficient and smooth running
Low moraleÆ high turnover- ZvP}(v}Pv]}v[Á}l(}ZoÀvuµ
¾ Sometimes natural and health b/c it weeds out low performing workers but high levels have
many negative consequences (numerous vacancies, disruption in production, decreased
productivity and high retraining vacancies)
Motivation- set of forces that causes people to behave in certain ways
Classical Theory and Scientific Management
According to so-called classic theory of motivation: A theory of motivation that presumes that
worker are motivated almost solely by money.
Frederick Taylor proposed a way for both companies and workers to benefit from this widely
accepted view of life in the workplace. If workers are motivated by money then paying them more
would make them work more.

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Meanwhile the firm that analyzed jobs and found better ways to perform them would be able to
produce more goods, more cheaply, make higher profits and thus pay and motivate- workers better
than it competitors
dÇo}[}Z]lv}Ávscientific management- breaking down jobs into easily repeated
components and devising more efficient tools and machine for performing them
Behaviour Theory: The Hawthorne Studies
Challenged the classical theory of human relations management
Any action on the part of management that made workers believe they were receiving special
attention caused worker productivity to rise which is known as the Hawthorne effect
¾ Had a major influence on human relations management convincing many businesses that paying
attention to employees is indeed good for business
The Human-Resources Model: Theories X & Y:
Douglas McGregor concluded that managers had radically different beliefs about how best to use
the human resources at (][]}o
Theory X: Management approach based on the belief that people must be forced to be productive
because they are naturally lazy, irresponsible and uncooperative
Theory Y: A management approach based on the belief that people want to be productive b/c they
are naturally energetic, responsible and co-operative
Theory X
Theory Y
People are lazy
People lack ambition and dislike
People are self-centred
People resist change
People are gullible and not very bright
People are energetic
People are ambitious and seek
People can be selfless
People want to contribute to business
growth and change
People are intelligent
Theory Y managers are more likely to have satisfied motivated employees
Hierarchy of human needs model: Theory of motivation describing five levels of human needs and
arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work to satisfy higher-level needs
Physiological Needs- need for survival, include: food, water, shelter and sleep, businesses address
these by providing both comfortable working conditions and salaries to buy food and shelter
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