- France is the major center for biotech start-ups
- Barcelona, spain has many flourishing software and internet companies
- Frankfurt region of Germany is dotted with both software and biotech start-ups
- Eastern: gained importance as marketplace and producer
- Gov instability has hampered economic development
[Japan, china, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, south Korea, Taiwan, Philippines,
Australia new Zealand]
- Strong entries in automobile, electronics, and banking industries
- Currency crisis in late 1990 slowed growth
- Major source of competition for North America firms
- Tech plays an imp role but emergence of tech firms has been hampered by poorly
developed electronic infrastructure , slower adaption of computers and information
techno, high percentage of lower income consumers, and currency crisis
Forms of competitive advantage [EXAM]
x No country can make everything plentifully, cheaply and well.
x We make some products faster, cheaper, better than other products.
x Faster, cheaper, easier, to make some things here.
x Faster, cheaper, easier to get some things from elsewhere.
x Some things you just can't make.
(e.g. Saudi Arabia can't export water, Canada can't export pineapples).
x Competitive Advantage comes from two sources:
1) Absolute advantage : DQDWLRQV¶DELOLW\WRSURGXFHVRPHWKLQJPRUHFKHDSHURr better than any
Because of unusual or unique geography, climate, location, population, natural resources or other
factors, a nation has an ability to produce goods that other countries simply cannot.
Why? Absolute Advantages
x access to raw material (iron, copper, zinc mined in Ontario, not found in other countries)
x ability to transform raw materials (steel mills in Hamilton, not found in other countries)
x lots of capital (Canada is very wealthy, other countries much less so)
x highly educated workforce (universities and colleges with engineering and management
schools in Toronto, Hamilton, Waterloo, not found in other countries)
x good transportation systems (CN, CP, 401, 407, 409, St Laurence Seaway concentrated
in Golden Horseshoe, cars are large and heavy to transport)
x close to market (next door to USA, other countries are not)