MGTA01H3 Study Guide - Job Satisfaction, Frederick Herzberg, Scientific Management

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25 Apr 2012
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Psychological contracts in organizations
Psychological contractis the set of expectations held by an employee
concerning what he or she will contribute to an organization and what the organization
will provide the employee in return
All organizations face basic challenge of managing psychological
contractsthey want value from employees and give employees the right incentives
Valuable but underpaid employees may perform below their capabilities
or leave for better jobs
But overpaying employees who contribute little incurs unnecessary costs
The foundation of a good human relationsis a satisfied and motivated
workforce
The importance of job satisfaction and morale
Job satisfactionthe pleasure and feeling of accomplishment employees
derive from performing their jobs wellif they enjoy their work, they are relatively
satisfied, but if not, they are relatively dissatisfied
Satisfied employees are likely to have high moralethe generally
positive or negative mental attitudes of employees toward their work and workplace
Why businesses need satisfied employees
When workers are enthusiastic and satisfiedthey are more committed to
their work and organization, and are more likely to work harder and make useful
contributions to the organization
Probably have fewer frievances and are less likely to engage in negative
behaviours and are more likely to come to work everyday and stay remain with the
organization
Dissatisfied workers are more likely to be absent due to minor illnesses,
personal reasons or a general disinclination to go to work
Low morale may result in high turnoverthe percentage of an
organizations workforce that leaves and must be replaced
Some turnover is necessary and healthy way to weed out low performing
workers, but high levels have many negative consequencesdecreased productivity,
disruption in production
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Motivation in the workplace
Employee motivation is even more critical to a firms success
Motivationis the set of forces that causes people to behave in certain
ways
Classical theory and scientific management
Classical theory of motivationaccording to this workers are motivated
almost solely by money
Scientific managementbreaking down jobs into easily repeated
components and devising more efficient tools and machines for performing them
Reasoned that if workers are motivated by money, then paying them more
would prompt them to produce more
Behaviour theory: the hawthorn studies
Results from the experimentwas that increasing lighting levels
improved productivity, but so did lowering lighting levels
Raising the pay of workers failed to increase their productivity
The explanation for the lighting phenomenon lay in workers response to
attentionthey determined that any action on the part of the management that made
workers believe they were receiving special attention caused worker productivity to rise
Hawthorne effectthe tendency for worker’s productivity to increase
when they feel they are receiving special attention from management
Contemporary motivation theories
The human resources model: theories X and Yresearcher concluded that
managers had radically different beliefs about how best to use the HR at a firms
disposalhe classified them into theories X and Y
Theory Xmanagement approach based on the belief that people must be
forced to be productive because they are naturally lazy, irresponsible and
uncooperativeso they think to either punish or reward to be productive
Theory ya management approach based on the belief that people want
to be productive because they are naturally energetic, responsible and cooperative
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Argued that theory Y managers are more likely to be satisfied, motivated
employees
Theory x and y distinctions are simplistic and don’t offer concrete basis
for action, their value lies primarily in their ability to highlight and analyze the behaviour
of managers in light of their attitudes toward employees
Maslow’s hierarchy of needs models—theory of motivation describing five
levels of human needs and arguing that basic needs must be fulfilled before people work
to satisfy higher level needshe classified these into 5 basic types
Physiological needsthose necessary for survivalfood, water,
shelter and sleep
Security needsneed for stability and protection from the
unknown so pension plans and job security
Social needsneed for friendship and companionship
Esteem needsneed for status and recognition as well as the need
for self respecteg. Respected job titles and large offices
Self actualization needsneeds for self fulfillmentinclude need
to grow and develop one’s capabilities and to achieve new and meaningful goals
According to maslowonce one set of needs has been satisfied, it ceases
to motivate behaviour
Two factor theorytheory of human relations developed by Frederick
Herzberg that identifies factors that must be present for employees to be satisfied with
their jobs and facts that if increased lead employees to work harder
The two factors werehygiene factorssuch as working
conditions and motivating factorssuch as recognition for a job well done
According to two factor theoryhygiene factors affect motivation
and satisfaction only if they are absent or fail to meet expectations
Motivating factors lie on a continuum from satisfaction to no
satisfaction
Hygiene factors on the other hand are likely to produce feelings
that lie on a continuum from dissatisfaction to no satisfaction
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