Music midterm.docx

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University of Toronto Scarborough
Music and Culture
Lenard Whiting

The word TETRA means four and tetrachord is a series of four notes that are in alphabetical order. They follow the pattern W W H. Two tetrachords are joined with a W and that makes up your major scale. Each scale begins and ends on the same note called the KEYNOTE. rd th Half steps occur btwn the 3 and 4rth degree and the 7-8 degree The second tetracord of C is the first Tetrachord for G and the second tetrachord for G is the first tetra chord for D th 4 scale degree of C (F) is the first degree in F major scale th st 4 scale degree in F (Bb) is 1 degree in Bb) major The 4 degree starting with C major scale is always the first note of the following flat scale ** review FLAT AND MAJOR SCALE. Key signature- # # Flats F scale- Bb Bb- Eb and Bb 1 flat is in F major scale (Bb) every other key signature the scale is next to the last flat Example Bb and Eb the scale is in Bb major Historical periods Medival- 400-1400 AD  Varied music  Plainchant sung in unison with no harmony/ or accompaniment  Church mode  From 1100 AD- secular love songs arose these songs which are strophic (same music for all stanzas of poem)  Last part of middle ages polyphony was developed and poluphony settings consisted of plainchant melodies and secular songs  Only one line of music was performed at a time  Pope greggory – establishes standard music notation  Most of the music was sacred religious  The text setting was melismatic  The text that contains a small number of notes per syllable is known as partially neumatic  Cappella was known as a place for worship. Musicians (schola) sang in these chapels and it later on became acapella Renaisance- 1400-1600-AD Imitation- the same melody is performed by different voices, entering one at a time Secular songs Motets- songs that have religious texts but are not part of the actual service Madigral-small group of singers unaccompanied Baroque- 1600-1750 AD Classical 1750-1800 AD Romantic 1800-1900 AD Modern to present 1900 AD to present Grand Staff- Bass + treble Ledger lines – high and low Rhythm- organization of sound length (duration) Beat- steady recurring pulse Piano 18 century piano was called pianoforte (soft-loud) The loudness of piano can be controlled by fingers unlike harpsichord P- piano (soft) f- loud Solfege Fixed-Do “C” Moveable-Do (can be any note which becomes the major scale) -createdby Italian guido in the 11 century -used the hyme to St.John the Baptist to create the ascending scale (Ut quent laxis) Breve- double whole note Semi-tone is the smallest distance btwn two notes Tone- is equivalent to two semitones C-major scale is a diatonic scale. 5 whole steps and 2 half steps IPA- international phonetics alphabets Fermata is used to show the note needs to be held Pianissimo, piano, messopiano, mezzo forte, forte, fortissimo Crescendo- eventually getting louder Descrescendo/diminuendo tells us to get softer A tie joins two notes of the same pitch Leggato/Slur connects two or more notes of different pitches. There is no break b/w the notes If stems are facing the same direction slur will be written in the opposite direction if facing mixed slur will be on the top Dotted notes increase the note by half the original value Key note- Home note A major scale is a specific arrangement of whole steps and half steps in the following orde
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