Exam review

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Janelle Leboutillier

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Exam 3 ReviewChild Neglect definitionsCharacteristics of NeglectAn act of omission rather than commissionMost forgotten area of study for child maltreatmentMost frequently reported type of child maltreatmentDefinitionDeficits in meeting a childs needsParents or caretakers failure to provide basic physical health care supervision nutrition personal hygiene emotional nurturing education or safe housingIssues associated with the DefinitionHow much of a role of should intentionality playHow does one factor the issues of povertyWhat are a childs basic needsContext is important to consider including cultural contextFrequency and Duration of Neglect is also important to considerImpact of Child NeglectFor cases reported to Child Protective Services researchers found thatof the cases suffered immediate physical harmEndangerment was added to the definition to denote that child had no current injury but the parental behavior placed the child at increased risk of future harmImpact appears to be greater for chronically neglectful families as opposed to newly neglectful familiesTypes of Child NeglectPhysical Neglect failing to provide the basic necessities of lifefood clothing and shelter additional definitions have expanded to include lack of supervision abandonment and refusing custodyEmotional Neglect greatest disagreement and great overlap with psychological maltreatmentFailure to express affection and caring for a childAdditional TypesHealth care neglectPersonal hygiene neglectNutritional neglectNeglect of household safety sanitationEpidemiology Based on large scale selfreport surveys27 of parents reported engaging in some form of child neglect at least once in the previous yearMost cases involved leaving a child alone when the parent thought an adult should be present11 were concern about childs nutrition2 were concerned about their problem drinking and inability to care for childAt Risk ChildrenYounger 51 are less the 5 years of ageFew gender differences though boys may be more likely to be emotionally neglect than girlsRisk for children of color may be greater but this is confounded with socioeconomic statusEffectiveness of strategies for Responding to Child NeglectChild Protective ServicesInvestigate reports of child maltreatmentProvide Treatment ServicesCoordinate services offered by other agenciesImplement Preventive servicesMandated ReportersCertain Professionals must report SUSPECTED cases of child maltreatmentReports must be made immediately upon suspicion of abuseFor nonprofessionals reports can be made anonymouslyhttpwwwdssmogovcdcanhtm Created in 1975 and takes over 105000 calls per yearTypes of ChildNeglect CallsAllegation of abuse excludes spanking in reasonable manner or neglect to a child victim The child victim must be under age 18 at the time of the call The abuseneglect must have been inflicted or caused by a person exercising care custody and control parent adult relative teacher day care provider etc over the child and Sufficient identifying information names addresses etc to locate the family and to begin an investigation or assessment Some Previous Problems with Missouri ReportingInconsistentincomplete information taken by hotline staffBusy signals during peak telephone timesPreviously the hotline answered on average less than 50 of calls offered and gave several thousand busy signals each monthImprovementsIn December 2003 a standardized protocol was implemented in order to make the calls more consistent and to assist with categorizing and triaging callsA call management system was added in 2004 in order to assist with busy signalsCompeting issues for CPSChild Safety Family ReunificationCharacteristics of Child Fatalities25 result from physical abuse36 result from child neglect31 died from multiple forms of maltreatmentLeading cause of death is head injury85 are under 6 years of age with 44 under the age of 1Out of Home CareBy the early 1990s more than 400000 children were placed in out of home care with the majority in foster carePredictors of foster carePrior maltreatmentYounger than 4 years of ageForms of abuse other than child sexual abuseResearch is inconclusive about whether out of home placements result in more beneficial outcomesRape DefinitionPrevalenceStrategies for Assessing RapeSexual Assault For the purpose of this presentation sexual assault is defined as any sort of sexual activity between at least two adults in which at least one of the people is involved against his or her willPhysical force may or may not be usedDefinition of RapeNoncensensual sexual penetration of an adolescent or adult obtained by physical force by threat of bodily harm or at such time when the victim is incapable of giving consent by virtue of mental illness mental retardation or intoxication includes date rape and date rape drugsDefinitional IssuesAny intrusion of the persons body however slight qualifies as sexual penetrationEmission of semen is not requiredForms of Sexual Violence
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