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Rutsuko Ito

lec09 emotions definition 1. emotions are biologically based responses to situations that are seen as personally relevant 2. shaped by learning and usually involve a. changes in peripheral physiology b. expressive behavior c. subjective experience dimensions of emotions 1. high / low arousal 2. positive / negative valence emotional expressions 1. physiology a. changes in i. heart rate / blood pressure / breathing rate ii. muscle tension iii. skin conductance iv. perceived body temperature v. sensory sensitivity 2. distinctive motor behavior a. facial expression b. tone of voice c. posture 3. self reported cognition a. how we feel subjectively at any given time came in 3:20 (10 minutes late) emotional expressions 1. unique ability to express emotion 2. darwin and analysis in animals a. concluded that expression of emotions are universal i. all animals / all races /etc 1. e.g. a. hair raising b. vocal emissions c. facial muscle movements d. etc emotional expressions 1. emotional expressions in humans vs monkeys 2. may be similar higher order facial expressions in response to emotion 3. ekman a. 6 basic facial expressions i. fear ii. happy iii. surprise iv. sad v. disgust vi. angry models of emotion 1. what is the link between subjective experience of emotion and the physiological responses to emotion? a. theory i. stimulus  subjective experience of fear  body response  report that heart is pounding because of feeling fear james lange theory 2. stimulus  body response  fear  feel afraid because heart is pounding peripheral body responses influencing emotions 3. experiment forcing a a. smile b. frown 4. results  a. more likely to increase a movie if smiling i. especially duchenne (full facial) smiling b. less likely to enjoy a movie if frowning 5. conclusions a. smiling  more likely to interpret subjective experience of smiling to positive experience of stimuli i. i.e. evidence for james-lange theory 6. HOWEVER a. experimental animals and human patients continue to react emotionally after spinal cord transection b. autonomic response would be too slow to be mediating emotional response (such as fear) cannon-bard theory 1. stimuli  body response + subjective experience of fear  stimuli makes me feel afraid AND my heart pounds 2. theory of central neural processes a. focus on thalamus as driving center for emotional experiences and responses i. sensory information relayed to thalamus ii. in turn activates cerebral cortex and ANS simultaneously iii. induces the subjective experience of emotion and physiological responses b. considered more feasible and logical than james-lange theory 3. HOWEVER a. more recent evidence suggests amygdala has a larger role than that of the thalamus 4. experiment for cannon-bard a. participants told that study involve effect of vitamin injections on visual skills b. instead given adrenaline or saline i. 4 groups 1. adrenalin ignorant a. angriest 2. adrenalin informed a. least happy b. least angry 3. adrenalin misinformed a. happiest 4. control (saline) c. assigned to two emotion eliciting groups i. euphoria condition 1. stooge performed silly acts designed to entertain and amuse participant ii. anger condition 1. stooge carried out tasks and made comments designed to annoy the participants d. then asked to give emotional ratings after spending time with the actors e. conclusion i. groups with no explanations for their body experiences 1. felt their emotions were attributed to the stooge 2. if a person experiences a state of arousal with no explanation  attribute those emotions to cognition available at the time  i.e. the stooge ii. adrenaline informed group 1. gave lowest ratings in both conditions 2. if a person experiences a state of arousal for which they have an appropriate explanation a. then they will be unlikely to attribute their emotions in terms of the alternative cognitions available  i.e. the stooge is not causing the bodily experiences iii. therefore 1. presence of physiological responses are not sufficient to drive emotions, but the attribution of emotion is a cognitive act that does schachter and singer's two factor theory 1. emotion arises from a combination of two factors that makes best sense of the situation the person is in a. state of arousal b. cognition 2. if we experience physiological arousal, we look for cues to find an explanation for our feelings a. sometimes emotions can be misattributed 3. creaky bridge experiment a. attractive female asked men to complete questionnaires on the bridge b. also gives them her phone number if they wanted to talk further c. people who crossed the scary bridge more likely to make post-interview calls two factor theory 1. stimulus  body response  interpretation (cognition)  fear  my pounding heart means im afraid because i interpret the situation as being dangerous modern theory 2. reciprocal connections between all three factors 3. creaky bridge study suggests that a. physiological arousal only influences intensity of emotion b. without distinguishing between emotions themselves neural basis of emotion 1. can we map emotion onto certain brain areas? papez circuit 2. AKA maclean circuit (he is the one who coined the term papez circuit) 3. important areas for emotion a. hypothalamus / mamillary bodies b. anterior thalamic nucleus c. cingulate gyrus d. hippocampus EXAMS 1. revise only figures in lecture  not the textbook limbic system as circuit of emotion 2. maclean a. modified circuit of papez b. included i. amygdala ii. orbitofrontal cortex
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