Lectures 1-8 notes

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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHLA10H3
Professor
William Seager
Semester
Fall

Description
Philosophy Lecture One Week One What is Philosophy -Paul Gaugan (1848-1903) Where do we come from? Where are we? Where are we going? -Big Questions Is there a God? What is existence? What do we know? (Investigated by reason) What is consciousness? How should we live? [email protected]^,LK_ Give off questions to other subjects. -The Main Branches of Philosophy Logic Reason and argument EG. ~ZZZZ}LZ}ZL[ZZZ]KZo7}ZZZZZ]KZoM (All students are frivolous Anyone who is frivolous is dilatory Therefore all students are dilatory.) Metaphysics Deal with issues in ontology and being -What is structure of ultimate reality -Why is there anything at all? -What is consciousness? @Z^,LK_ -What is Matter? -What is Time? ____A lot of Philosophical problems with science Epistemology What is knowledge? (The stopped clock -> you know the time by accident.) -Knowledge of the mind. The difference between believe and knowledge -Estimology and Logic How is knowledge acquired and secured? -Estimology and Metaphysics The assessment of Metaphysical claims Value Theory Ethics -> RightWrong (The Trolley Problem J kill 5 or kill 1) Social Theory -> Political Philosophy Aesthetics -> What is art? Does art have special value? Metaphysics, Epistemology and Value www.notesolution.com Lecture Three Week Two Test of Validity J -The counter-example: same structure of the original argument with a false conclusion. How could you tell if an argument is invalid? -(Logic) -(Counter-example) EG. No philosophers are rocks. Some philosophers are employed. No rocks are employed. No women are men. Some women are parents. No men are parents. Patching invalid arguments -By adding premises, an invalid argument can be made into a valid argument. EG. Fish can swim. Therefore, some women are wealthy. Fish can swim. If any fish can swim, some women are wealthy. Therefore, some women are wealthy. -(The patched and valid argument are worthless) Deductive arguments J Validity and Soundness -A sound argument is a valid deductive argument with all true premises. -You can deduce something about the conclusion of a sound deductive argument. -A deductive argument can take two forms: Debate about whether the logical form is valid. Debate about whether the premises are true. EG. Nuclear power is safe. Nuclear power emits zero greenhouse gases. Therefore, we should use nuclear power. -Only takes one wrong premise to make an argument an unsound argument. Deductive Arguments J Conditionals -A basic argument structure: If X then Y, X; therefore Y. (Validity is defined using a conditional) -Valid versus invalid conditionals www.notesolution.com
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