Review #4

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William Seager

PHL A10 - Exercise IV 1. Explain the structure of arguments from analogy. An argument from analogy has the following logical form; where A is the analog, T is the target, and n is the degree of similarity between A and T. The higher n is, the more probable the conclusion is. Object A has property P. Object A and object T are similar by degree n. n [fdgdga cdhfdhahfddddddddddddddddddddk T has property P. 2. Why might the argument from design be a very weak inductive argument? The argument from design might be a very weak inductive argument because the sample size for this inductive argument is zero. The argument that the universe is the product of intelligent design should be an induction, and to have an induction, extrapolation from a sample is necessary. A large number of other universes would have to be examined and if most of them were of intelligent design, then it can be concluded that this universe is also of intelligent design. However, this universe is the only universe mankind has experienced. Therefore, without a sample size, the argument becomes a weak inductive argument. 3. What is the difference between theistic evolutionism and creationism according to Sober? Theistic evolutionism says that God set mindless evolutionary processes in motion; these processes, once underway, suffice to explain the observed features of organisms. Creationism says that God set mindless evolutionary processes in motion, as in theistic evolutionism, but it also says that God periodically intervenes in these mindless process
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