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Department
Philosophy
Course
PHLA10H3
Professor
William Seager
Semester
Fall

Description
PHL A10 - Exercise V 1. What is the difference between perfect and imperfect adaptation? The idea of perfect and imperfect adaptation has to do with evidence that shows whether or not life is related. The Principle of common cause states the belief that all living things on earth have common ancestors. Imperfect adaptation is the fact that organisms are not perfectly adapted to their environments. Organisms are suited in a makeshift way in order to avoid extinction for the short run. Vestigial organs are evidence that various species have common ancestry. On the other hand, perfect adaptation provides weaker evidence that all living creatures have a common ancestor. The Surprise Principle explains why there are some similarities, but not all. 2. What does it mean to say that two hypotheses are predictively equivalent? Two hypotheses are predictively equivalent if they predict the same observations and equally explain the phenomenon. To decide between the two theories, Ockhans Razor, the Principle of Parsimony, is used. This is where the simplest theory is chosen. By simplest, it means to have the fewest ontological commitments. Organisms are suited in a makeshift way in order to avoid extinction for the short run. Vestigial organs are evidence that various species have common ancestry. On the other hand, perfect adaptation provides weaker evidence that all living creatures have a common ancestor. The Surprise Principle explains why there are some similarities, but not all. 3. What is the difference between local and global questions? The difference between local and global questions is that global questions do no seem to have any underlying structure, which could expla
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