Review #8

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University of Toronto Scarborough
William Seager

PHL A10 - Exercise VIII 1. What does Sober mean by the internal certifiability of knowledge? Internal certifiability means that if S knows some proposition P, then there exists an argument that shows that P must be true, whose premises are either a priori true or knowable by introspection. Introspection is gained by going within ones mind and examining its contents. The subjective premise describes what is going on in the subjects mind. The objective conclusion makes a claim about the world outside the subjects mind. The linking premise shows how the subjective premise necessitates the objective conclusion. If the subject knows that the objective conclusion is true, then the subject must know that the linking premise is true and must know this independently of sense experience. 2. Why is reliability an objective feature of some information carriers and the environment? Reliability is an objective feature of some information carriers and the environment because reliability has nothing to do with what one imagines. If the situations imagined were actually obtained, then it would be unreliable under those circumstances. This is best explained with the analogy of the thermometer. If the thermometer says that the temperature is n degrees, then the temperature must be n degrees. It is an entirely separate question whether anybody realizes that this thermometerenvironment relationship obtains. Whether we notice this fact is a subject question, but whether the relationship obtains is an objective matter. 3. Whats the key difference between the reliability theory of knowledge and the traditional justified true belief theory of knowledge? The difference between RTK and JTB is that RTK makes use of the concepts of neces
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