Review #11

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University of Toronto Scarborough
William Seager

PHL A10 - Exercise XI 1. What is the circularity (Sober calls it incompleteness) problem facing logical behaviourism? In logical behaviorism the meaning of psychological statements are their verification conditions, which consist of performed overt behavior. In logic, begging the question describes a type of logical fallacy, petitio principii, in which the conclusion of an argument is implicitly or explicitly assumed in one of the premises. 2. What is environmental determinism? Why is it a problem for methodological behaviourism? Environmental determinism, also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism, is the view that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture. Those who believe this view say that humans are strictly defined by stimulus-response and cannot deviate. The objective study of third-person behavior; the data of psychology must be inter-subjectively verifiable; no theoretical presciptions. It has been absorbed into general experimental and cognitive psychology. 3. Why does the principle of parsimony favour the identity theory over dualism? The Principle of Parsimony, also called Ockhams Razor is the principle that one should not multiply entities unnecessarily or make further assumptions than are needed, and in general that one should pursue the simplest hypothesis. Adoption of this principle, though seemingly obvious, leads to problems about the role of simplicity in science, especially when choosing between hypotheses that are not (or are not known to be) equivalent. There are often different and clashing criteria for what is the simplest hypothesis, and it is not clear wheth
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