Reading Notes

21 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto Scarborough
Cathal O Madagain

[PHLB09 FINAL EXAM ARTICLE NOTES] Winter 2011 Lucretius Article: Lucretius fears are found in this world, and not in another world beyond death. 1. The fear of Tantalus: the fear of gods or a fear of what chance may impose on life 2. The fear of Sisyphus : the fear of the unattainable goal of power 3. The fear of Furies ( the seven circles of hell judgment day) : the fear of comeuppance Death is claimed to be an evil of privation, for it deprives its victim of whatever goods in life that person otherwise would experience. Lucretius states that death cannot harm us because we seize to exist after death. We feel no emotion or physical pain. - Nor do our selves which existed in the past concern us now: we feel no anguish about them. Human existence is comprised of the joining of the body and the spirit. One cannot exist without the other. - Even if the nature of our mind and the power of our spirit do have sensation after they are torn from our bodies that is still nothing to us, who are constituted by the conjunction of body and spirit. - There is nothing for us to fear in death, that he who does not exist cannot be unhappy, and that when immortal death snatches away a mortal life it is no different from never having been born. Lucretius asks why we feel grief and sadness upon the death of someone. - (To the dead): You at least, in deaths sleep, will be evermore free of all pain and suffering. - No day will come to purge our hearts of it. Of the person who says this, we should ask what is so sad about a return to sleep and rest, that someone should be able to pine in everlasting grief. Thomas Aquinas: Whether it is lawful to kill oneself? 1. Murder is a sin as it creates injustice to the victim. No man can do injustice to himself therefore there is no wrong in man killing himself. - Aquinas Response: This is opposed to charity which a man should have towards himself: in this respect suicide is a sin in relation to oneself. In relation to the community and to God, it is also sinful. 2. It is lawful for public authority figures to kill evil doers. If one who exercises public authority is an evil doer than it is lawful for him to kill himself. - Aquinas Response: No man is a judge of himself. Wherefore it is not lawful for one who exercises public authority to put himself to death for [PHLB09 FINAL EXAM ARTICLE NOTES] Winter 2011 any sin whatever: he may still lawfully commit himself to the judgment of others. 3. In order to avoid greater danger, it is lawful for a man to cut off a decayed limb in order to save his whole body. It is also lawful for a man to kill himself in order to avoid greater evil such as an unhappy life or the shame of a sin. - Aquinas Response: It is not lawful for a man to take his own life so that he may pass to a happier life, nor may he escape any unhappiness whatsoever of the present life, because the ultimate and most fearsome evil of this life is death. Therefore to bring death upon oneself in order to escape the other afflictions of this life is to adopt a greater evil in order to avoid a lesser. - Aquinas Response: It is unlawful to take ones own life on account of having committed a sin, both because by so doing one does oneself a great injury, by depriving oneself of the time needful for repentance, and because it is not lawful to slay an evildoer except by the sentence of the public authority. 4. Further, Samson killed himself, as related in Judges 16, and yet he is numbered among the saints (Heb. 11). Therefore it is lawful for a man to kill himself 5. Choosing to die nobly rather than falling in the arms of an enemy. Nothing that is down nobly and bravely is unlawful. Therefore this suicide is lawful. - Aquinas Response: A man must endure the pain (of being killed by another) with fortitude for the sake of the good of virtue, and that he may avoid sin. A man who takes his own life in order to avoid evil has indeed an appearance of fortitude, yet it is not true fortitude, but rather a weakness of soul unable to bear evil. According to Augustine: one who kills himself, kill nothing else than a man. It is unlawful to kill a man and therefore it is unlawful to kill oneself. - Aquinas Response: it is unlawful to kill oneself for three reasons : Everything naturally loves itself, the result being that everything naturally keeps itself in being and resists corruptions so far as it can. Suicide is a contrary to the inclination of nature. Hence suicide is always a moral sin. Every man is part of a community; by himself he wrongs the community. Life is Gods gift to man, and is subject to His power, who kills and makes to live. Hence whoever takes his own life, sins against God. Thomas Nagel - Death
More Less

Related notes for PHLB09H3

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.