Study Guides (390,000)
CA (150,000)
UTSC (10,000)
Study Guide

PHLA10H3- Final Exam Guide - Comprehensive Notes for the exam ( 31 pages long!)


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHLA10H3
Professor
William Seager
Study Guide
Final

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 31 pages of the document.
UTSC
PHLA10H3
Final EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- The Value of Philosophy Bertrand Russel
o How can philosophy have value if there are no right answers?
Answers this by talking about how science is useful and how philosophy is
different from it. Science, things like inventions for example, are directly useful
to the rest of the population without them having to understand how it works.
Hoee, Betad states if the stud of philosoph has a alue at all fo
others than students of philosophy, it must be only indirectly, through its effects
upon the lies of those ho stud it.
Union between self and not self. Bridging the gap between your world, and the
outside world
Liberation from Dogmatism
- Cosmological Argument for God Richard Taylor
o Necessary a’t ot eist, ust eist
It’s i its atue to exist. You cannot remove its existence
Uses the example of a circle. All points are equidistant from the center, you
cannot change that fact. That fact is necessary to a circle being a circle
o Contingent could have not existed. Can cease to exist
Realise that the argument is heavily based on this secondary definition of
contingency. Do you agree with this secondary definition?
o Seeing a random translucent ball in the middle of a forest has one of two explanation
There is an explanation
Or it exists without any explanation
o Hoee, Talo agues that due to the piiple of suffiiet easo P“R that…
i the ase of a positie tust, thee is soe suffiiet easo fo it.. thee is
some sort of explanation, known or unknown, for everything
He then goes on to say that this is neither contingent or necessary, it must be
such a fundamental truth that it transcends all of reason
This is known as a brute fact
it ight e popel alled the pesuppositio of easo itself
But Taylor also goes on to sa that that is’t hat eall attes
o Taylor then says that there must then be a sufficient reason for the universe therefore
o But if the uiese has a easo fo eistig, h a’t it e ithi the uiese?
Taylor argues that something that is the sufficient reason for its own existence
would have to be eternal and indestructible (stronger than existing forever), and
we know that the universe is neither of these things
But here Taylor is clearly exhibiting the fallacy of composition, just because the
pats of the uiese ae leal ot eteal ad idestutile, it does’t ea
the uiese itself is’t
But Taylor says that it is possible that this fallacy makes his argument false, but
that it is not probable
He does this by saying we can imagine the universe never having existed
o But if Taylor is correct, then it leads to a reduction ad absurdum
The universe would need a reason, then God would need a reason, then that
God would need a reason and so on and so forth
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

So Taylor then argues that that must mean that the cycle MUST break
somewhere and wherever or whomever causes it must be God
o But the entire concept of something being self caused is incoherent. A being cannot
create itself or bring itself into being
However, Taylor says that the reader is making an error in thinking this.
Self-Caused means only that it exists, not contingently or in dependence upon
something else but by its own nature and that it cannot come into being or
perish
o But if God did’t oe ito eig, the ae the uiese did’t eithe. If the uiese
exists forever, then it is not created by anything
However, here Taylor argues that creation is simply another word for
dependence here. The universe could very well have been here forever, but, it is
still dependent
TO do this he used the example of a flame creating light. The flame and light
could have both been there forever, but the light is still dependent on the flame
o This does not at all prove the JCM God, it simply shows that it make more sense to
believe in a God than to not
o How does Taylor argue that his application of the PSR to the universe avoids the
fallacy of composition?
- Argument from design Paley
o Begins by saying that it would not be odd to accept that a rock in a forest had been
there forever, however if we were to find a watch in the same place it would not be as
easy to accept
This is because upon inspecting the watch we see a level of complexity of design
that the rock does not have. That if the watch had any given parts out of place,
it would not work
Purpose vs Design... the reading itself points a little bit more towards purpose
than design. (Purpose Telos)
Purpose Design Maker
the ifeee, e thik, is ieitale, that the ath ust hae had a ake
o What if we had never seen a watch being made?
Many people would see it as cheating that he picked something we all know has
been built
But Paley argues that there are many thigs e do’t ko the akig of ut
still accept the fact it had been made
Even if we found some ancient device with no clear purpose but clear design,
e ould’t dout a ake
o What if the watch malfunctions?
It’s ot eessa fo a deie to e pefet for it to have been made
o Maybe there are just metallic law or watch laws of nature or watches are just natural
forms
Paley says that law is a function of design
Also says this is odd, that something so intricate just is just cause
o Suppose that we discover the watch that can produce another watch like itself
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version