Study Guides (258,875)
CA (125,029)
UTSC (8,106)
Philosophy (145)
PHLA10H3 (31)

Review #5

2 Pages
467 Views

Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHLA10H3
Professor
William Seager

This preview shows half of the first page. Sign up to view the full 2 pages of the document.
PHL A10 - Exercise V
1. What is the difference between "perfect" and "imperfect" adaptation?
The idea of perfect and imperfect adaptation has to do with evidence that shows whether or not life is related. The
Principle of common cause states the belief that all living things on earth have common ancestors. Imperfect
adaptation is the fact that organisms are not perfectly adapted to their environments. Organisms are suited in a
makeshift way in order to avoid extinction for the short run. Vestigial organs are evidence that various species
have common ancestry. On the other hand, perfect adaptation provi des weaker evidence that all living creatures
have a common ancestor. The Surprise Principle explains why there are some similarities, but not all.
2. What does it mean to say that two hypotheses are predictively equivalent?
Two hypotheses are predictively equivalent if they predict the same observations and equally explain the
phenomenon. To decide between the two theories, Ockhans Razor, the Principle of Parsimony, is used. This is
where the simplest theory is chosen. By simplest, it means to have the fewest ontological commitments.
Organisms are suited in a makeshift way in order to avoid extinction for the short run. Vestigial organs are
evidence that various species have common ancestry. On the other hand, perfect adaptation provides weaker
evidence that all living creatures have a common ancestor. The Surprise Principle explains why there are some
similarities, but not all.
3. What is the difference between "local" and "global" questions?
The difference between local and global questions is that global questions do no seem to have any underlying
structure, which could expl ain them, whereas local questions are answerable why-questions with a focus on what
has happened in history. Science cannot answer global questions. Two hypotheses are predictively equivalent if
they predict the same observations and equally explain the phenomenon. To decide between the two theories,
Ockhan’s Razor, the Principle of Parsimony, is used. This is where the simplest theory is chosen. By simplest, it
means to have the fewest ontological commitments.
4. Give three plausible (and new) examples of a posteriori and a priori truths.
Examples of a priori truths are mathematical statements and definitions of words. 10 x 2 = 20, red is a colour, and
15 + 10 = 25, are a priori truths. A posteriori require experience. Examples are the sky is blue, the pencil on the
floor, and it is cold outside. The difference between local and global questions is that global questions do no seem
to have any underlying structure, which could explain them, whereas local questions are answerable why-
questions with a focus on what has happened in history. Science cannot answer global questions.
5. Outline the basic form of the ontological argument.
The problem with f ree will is that perhaps i t is just an elaborate illusion. Perhaps the issue of freedom is used as a
defense against the truth that the choices we make encompass factors that are beyond our control. The question
concerning f ree will asks whether one can exercise control over their actions and decisions. Despite having to
make choices everyday at your own free will, the acti ons one performs or abstain is not dependent of the
freedom of choice.
6. Why is the "perfect island" a problem for the ontological argument?
www.notesolution.com

Loved by over 2.2 million students

Over 90% improved by at least one letter grade.

Leah — University of Toronto

OneClass has been such a huge help in my studies at UofT especially since I am a transfer student. OneClass is the study buddy I never had before and definitely gives me the extra push to get from a B to an A!

Leah — University of Toronto
Saarim — University of Michigan

Balancing social life With academics can be difficult, that is why I'm so glad that OneClass is out there where I can find the top notes for all of my classes. Now I can be the all-star student I want to be.

Saarim — University of Michigan
Jenna — University of Wisconsin

As a college student living on a college budget, I love how easy it is to earn gift cards just by submitting my notes.

Jenna — University of Wisconsin
Anne — University of California

OneClass has allowed me to catch up with my most difficult course! #lifesaver

Anne — University of California
Description
PHL A10 - Exercise V 1. What is the difference between perfect and imperfect adaptation? The idea of perfect and imperfect adaptation has to do with evidence that shows whether or not life is related. The Principle of common cause states the belief that all living things on earth have common ancestors. Imperfect adaptation is the fact that organisms are not perfectly adapted to their environments. Organisms are suited in a makeshift way in order to avoid extinction for the short run. Vestigial organs are evidence that various species have common ancestry. On the other hand, perfect adaptation provides weaker evidence that all living creatures have a common ancestor. The Surprise Principle explains why there are some similarities, but not all. 2. What does it mean to say that two hypotheses are predictively equivalent? Two hypotheses are predictively equivalent if they predict the same observations and equally explain the phenomenon. To decide between the two theories, Ockhans Razor, the Principle of Parsimony, is used. This is where the simplest theory is chosen. By simplest, it means to have the fewest ontological commitments. Organisms are suited in a makeshift way in order to avoid extinction for the short run. Vestigial organs are evidence that various species have common ancestry. On the other hand, perfect adaptation provides weaker evidence that all living creatures have a common ancestor. The Surprise Principle explains why there are some similarities, but not all. 3. What is the difference between local and global questions? The difference between local and global questions is that global questions do no seem to have any underlying structure, which could expla
More Less
Unlock Document


Only half of the first page are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

Unlock Document
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version

Unlock Document

Log In


OR

Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit