Department

Physics and AstrophysicsCourse Code

PHYA22H3Professor

Daniel WeaverStudy Guide

FinalThis

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University of Toronto

PHYA22

Physics II for the Life Sciences

Prof: Dan Weaver

Winter 2019

Final Exam

Exam Guide

Topics Included:

●Waves

●Superposition

●Optics and Lenses

●Electric Charges

●Electric Fields

●Electric Potential

●Current and Circuits

●Magnetism

●Atomic Physics

●Nuclear Physics

1

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Chapter 16 - Travelling Waves

Types of Waves:

●Transverse - displacement is perpendicular to the direction in which the wave travels

●Longitudinal - particles in the medium are displaced parallel to the direction in which

the wave travels

Classes of Waves:

●Mechanical - travel through a material

●Electromagnetic - don’t require a material to travel and are able to travel through a

vacuum

Wave Speed: speed with which a wave travels down a medium

v=√μ

T

where v = speed

T = tension

= linear densityμ

Linear Density: mass to length ratio of a string

μ = L

m

where = linear densityμ

m = mass

L = length

Snapshot Graph: wave’s displacement as a function of position at a a single time t

History Graph: wave’s displacement as a function of time at a single position x

Sinusoidal Waves: wave that oscillates with simple harmonic motion

●Period (T) - time interval for one cycle of motion to occur

●Amplitude (A) - maximum value of displacement

●Wavelength ( ) - distance spanned by one cycle of motionλ

●Wave number (k) - spatial frequency of wave

●Angular frequency ( ) - angular displacement per unit timeω

T=f

1

2

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fv =λ

T= λ

k=λ

2π

k ω = v

(x, ) sin (kx t) D t =A− ω + ϕ

Wave Equation: Newton’s second law written for a continuous object where the displacement

is a function of position and time

δt 2

δ D

2=μ

T

δx 2

δ D

2

Index of Refraction: ratio between speed of light in a vacuum and speed of light in a material

n=speed of light in a vacuum

speed of light in a material =v

c

λ material =n

λ vacuum

Phase and Phase Difference:

●Phase is constant throughout every point on a wave front

●Depends on the ratio of the separation between two points on a wave and their

wavelength

ϕ kΔx π Δ = = 2 λ

Δx

Power (P): amount of energy transferred per unit time (t)

Intensity (I): power to area (a) ratio

●Wave with a smaller area will have a larger intensity than another wave with equal

power that takes up a larger area

●Is related to the radius (r)

●Intensity is also proportional to the square of the amplitude of the wave

P=t

E

I=a

P

I 2

I 1=r 2

2

r 2

1

3

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