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[POLA02H3] - Final Exam Guide - Everything you need to know! (87 pages long)


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLA02H3
Professor
Renan Levine
Study Guide
Final

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UTSC
POLA02H3
FINAL EXAM
STUDY GUIDE

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Challenges of Governance
Is this government of the people, by the people, for the people?
Clearly no
o Why not?
Judge was receiving huge payments in return for incarcerating teenagers
in a particular set of jails/treatment programs
Example of a state official using the post for his (or her) own personal
benefit, contrary to the interests of the citizenry
Corruption can have huge implications
Corruption can lead to having no money for starving individuals
o Such as thousands of Kenyan kids going hungry due to the lack of money
This was solved by international donors spending nearly half a billion
dollars (nearly $500,000,000) to feed the starving Kenyans after tens of
millions of dollars went missing in a string of corruption scandals within
the country
o Suh as Gaza’s failig effot to euild afte sue oflit
Ever since that 50-day war with Israel, the Guardian has established that
a controversial UN-designed mechanism to control the supply of building
materials and prevent them from falling into the hands of the militant
group Hamas (corrupt group)
Talking Points
The government, or more broadly the state, plays a big role in our lives
Stress: Institutions matter
o Institutions organize political life in ways that affect how politics are conducted
and what policy outcomes result
Challenge is to construct institutions where the people who hold power use that power
for the benefit of the citizens and themselves rather than just themselves at a loss to
citizens
Some places, these institutions fail routinely and spectacularly
A variety of ways power can be abused
On July 17, a 43 year old dad was killed on Staten Island as the police attempted to
arrest him for selling untaxed cigarettes by putting him in a chokehold which ultimately
killed him
What happens when power is abused?
Unhappy in Toronto
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Really unhappy in Toronto
Violence in Ferguson, Missouri
Fro ad to worse…
Cairo: Where people were really unhappy
Fatal consequences
When the Egyptian army clashed with their protesters, 51 protesters and 3 military
officers died
Which is better?
Managed conflict?
Some countries have institutions that do a very good job managing inter-group conflicts
within institutional parameters, preventing (or minimizing) violence
o Other countries fail to keep conflict contained within governing institutions, and
sometimes these conflicts fail to be confined within geographic borders
Most wars today are primarily (or originate as) intra-state conflicts
If we want to prevent war, it is critical to learn how to manage conflict
Key Term: Politics
Process through which individuals and groups reach an agreement on a course of
common, or collective, action to allocate public resources and to create and enforce
rules for the operation of society
o Even as they continue to disagree on the goals that action is intended to achieve
Key Terms: Collective Action
How people organize themselves to make decisions involving many people and affecting
everyone
Key Term: Political Institutions
Institutions = Codified constraints on behaviour
o Includes entities that:
Create, enforce and apply laws
Actual laws and government policies
Entities and organizations that provide representation for people in
government
Institutions create incentives and disincentives for:
o Enhancing public welfare and/or
o Short-term benefits, long-term pain and/or
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