POLB50 FINAL EXAM REVIEW 1
1.Roger Gibbins indicates that the resulting Constitution of 1982 is a
“fascinating paradox”. Why? What lead to this situation? Be specific.
What has happened in the politics of the post-1982 era because of this
situation? Be specific to events, legislation and demands.
2.Explain the evolution of Canadian federalism, highlighting and comparing
the characteristics of each of the phases. Indicate whether or not the phase
pushed the federation toward centralization or decentralization.
To begin with, federalism refers to the system where political authority is divided
between two constitutionally distinct orders/levels of government. The two level of
orders are federal, and provincial orders. There is a debate if Aboriginal should
be a third level.
So the first phase is Confederation Settlement. This phase is incredibly
centralized, barely a federal government. This was established for power. Power
for raising money, over trade, responsibility for indegineous people.
The second phase is colonial federalism. This was central to government using
power to keep everything central. Quebec was upset because they feel that the
minority is threatened.
Then it is classical federalism. This phase lasted until 1930. Individual provinces
became more powerful, and it was about decentralizing. Provinces became bigger,
richer from their own money. Depression happened, provinces unable to deal with
depression alone. Until 1914-1918 World War one occurred. War brings people
together, this became central because everyone feels together. (Both war and
depression push Canada to centralized country).
Then co-operative federalism occurred, this is where provinces work together.
1945-1960. This is the process of building of welfare state. Federal government
helps assume help for welfare programs and health care. This is funded by shared
cost/conditional cost. This didn’t exist before WW1.
Then Competitive Federalism. This is between 1960-1980. This included two
main things, 1) Quebec, and 2) Energy Wars. In Quebec the quiet revolution
occurred. This is growing nationalism in Quebec, general cultural shity, becomes
secular, and less catholic, less conservative, business happens more in French.
Energy Wars was between Alberta and Newfoundland. Alberta increased prices.
They cut oil and energy to Toronto. This creates western resentment and
alienation. Then the National Energy Program- centralizes control over energy.
Constitutional Federalism: 1980’s. Trudeau passes the constitution. Provinces
are treated symmetrical. Quebec never agreed to the constitution. Quebec was
asymmetrical federalism. A) Meech Lake Reform: 1987- attempt at constitution,
fails! – Quebec wanted to be recognized in five ways. 1. Recognition as a distinct
community 2) veto over constitution on change power 3) supreme court