POLB50Y3 Study Guide - Open List, Charter Of The French Language, Closed List

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17 Dec 2010
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ZdZξ€žξ€ƒ'vP}(ξ€ƒξ€œ]PZξ‚š[
x D}ξ‚ξ‚šξ€ƒξ‚‰ξ‚Œξ€žu]ξ€žξ‚Œξ‚ξ€ƒ}}ξ‚ξ€žξ€šξ€ƒdξ‚ŒΒ΅ξ€šξ€žξ€‚Β΅[Zξ€‚ξ‚Œξ‚šξ€žξ‚Œξ€ƒ}(Z]PZξ‚šξ‚ξ€ƒ
x Feared it would diminish their influence, transfer power from elected politicians to non-elected
judges
x The premiers who formed an alliance against hime -> gang of eight
x Mounted a challenge to Trudeau taking his bill to the Supreme Court
x Had closed-door meetings
x Last thing they wanted because they knew Trudeau had Canadians on his side
x Dξ€žξ‚šξ€ƒ}v^ξ‚šZξ€žξ€ƒE]PZξ‚šξ€ƒ}(>}vP<v]Γ€ξ€žξ‚[vξ€šξ€ƒuξ€‚ξ€šξ€žξ€ƒξ€‚ξ€ƒξ€šξ€žξ€‚oÁ]ξ‚šZ}Β΅ξ‚šξ€ƒ>ξ€žΓ€ξ€žξ‚‹Β΅ξ€žξ€ƒ-> Quebec Rep
ZdZξ€žξ€ƒE]PZξ‚šξ€ƒ}(>}vP<v]Γ€ξ€žξ‚[
x Night Trudeau stabbed Rene Levesque in the back
x In order to get the new Constitution agreed upon in 1982, Trudeau introduced everyone but
Levesque to the Notwithstanding Clause
x Sig: created a lot of conflict in Canadian politics
Backbencher
Cabinet Member
x Cabinet currently comprises of 38 ministers
x Each minister responsible for advising the Monarch, Governor General, PM, and other ministers
in all political matters
x General administration of atleast one government portfolio
Campaign Financing
Classical Federalism
x Supports clear and exclusive divisions among the different levels of government with each
concentrating only on its own jurisdictions and having few interactions
x Referred to as ^Γξ€‚ξ‚šξ€žξ‚Œξ‚š]PZξ‚šξ€ƒξ€}uξ‚‰ξ€‚ξ‚Œξ‚šuξ€žvξ‚šξ‚_
x Compact notion of Canada: Decentralization
x JCPC upholds provincial powers in their jurisdictions
x Each level of government t independent, autonomous in its area of jurisdiction and minimal
interaction or overlap between two levels
x Type of federalism dominant between 1896 and 1914, after First World War, between 1921 and
1939
x Canadian state was u}ξ‚Œξ€žξ€ƒ^(ξ€žξ€šξ€žξ‚Œξ€‚o_ξ€ƒξ‚šZvξ€ƒξ€‚ξ‚šξ€ƒξ€‚vΓ‡ξ€ƒξ‚š]uξ€žξ€ƒξ€ξ€ž(}ξ‚Œξ€žξ€ƒ}ξ‚Œξ€ƒξ‚]vξ€ξ€žξ€ƒ
x Reasonable balance of powers between federal and provincial governments
x Classical federalism submerged by emergency federalism during war years
Coalition Government
x Parliamentary government in which cabinet composed of more than one party
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Collaborative Federalism
x Grounded on idea that federal and provincial government should work together in developing
and implementing regional and national public policies and programs
x E}oξ€žΓ€ξ€žo}(P}Γ€ξ€žξ‚Œvuξ€žvξ‚šξ€ƒ]}v]ξ€šξ€žξ‚Œξ€žξ€šξ€ƒ^u}ξ‚Œξ€žξ€ƒ]u}ξ‚Œξ‚šξ€‚vξ‚š_}ξ‚Œξ€ƒ^ξ‚Β΅ξ‚‰ξ€žξ‚Œ]}ξ‚Œ_ξ€ƒξ‚š}vÇ}ξ‚šZξ€žξ‚Œξ€ƒ]vξ€ƒξ€šξ€žΓ€ξ€žo}]vP
policies and programs
x Non-constitutional, incremental negotiations
x Specific policy area focused rather than mega reform packages
x Decentralization of power to provinces
x Federal withdrawal from certain provincial jurisdictions, cutbacks to social and health transfers,
globalization reduces role of nation-state
Colonial/Quasi-Federalism
x Division of powers establish colonial-like relationship between Ottawa and provinces
o Parliamentary supremacy
o Residual powers
o Concurrent jurisdiction t agriculture and immigration t center takes charge
x Centralized intentions of Constitution
x Dξ€‚ξ€ξ€˜}voξ€š[s Nation Building Project t included policies of tariffs to protect Canadian industry,
building of transcontinental reailroads, encouragement of western settlement
x Use of Federal Controls on Provincial Power
x Dominated post-confederation period
x Zξ€ž(oξ€žξ€ξ‚š]vPDξ€‚ξ€ξ€˜}voξ€š[ξ‚ξ€ƒξ‚‰ξ‚Œξ€ž(ξ€žξ‚Œξ€žvξ€ξ€žξ€ƒ(}ξ‚Œξ€ƒΒ΅v]ξ‚šξ€‚ξ‚ŒΓ‡ξ€ƒξ‚ξ‚šξ€‚ξ‚šξ€žξ€ƒ
x Power relationship between central and provincial government similar to imperial-colonial
relationship
Competitive Federalism
x Refer to dynamics between sub-national governments (horizontal competition) and between
national and sub-national governments (vertical competition).
x Horizontal competition between regional governments advocated to apply free-market
economic principles
x Vertical competition between central and regional governments
x Entail positive policy in areas where there is overlap between levels of governments
x Each level purses distinct policies and observing with policies are more successful
Conditional Shared Cost Transfers
x Related to share cost programs
x After certain conditions are set, the government pays about 50% of each program
x powers of provincial and federal are constitutional - debate over jurisdiction of federal
government to force conditions on provinces
x ex. Canada Health Transfer and Canada Social Transfer
Confidence Vote
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x a motion of support to a government proposal
x defeat of a vote of confidence results in the dissolution of government
x ex. In November 2005, the conservatives in minority won confidence vote from liberals who
were in majority
Constitutional Amending Formula
x the formula requires the federal parliament and provincial legislature approve (5 considerations)
x come into play with the Meech Lake Accord where all 10 premiers agreed, but not the federal
government
x Ex. Process began in 1927
Constitutional Federalism
x WDdξ‚ŒΒ΅ξ€šξ€žξ€‚Β΅[À]]}v]ξ‚ξ€ƒξ€‚ξ€ƒξ€ξ€žvξ‚šξ‚Œξ€‚o]ΓŒξ€žξ€šξ€ƒ(ξ€žξ€šξ€žξ‚Œξ€‚ξ‚š]}v
x individuals relate to their federal government not through their provincial government
x Fact: there is a centralized form of federalism embedded in the Constitution
x Trudeau t idea of promoting one political identity rooted in bilingualism, multiculturalism, and
individual rights
x Secured with central government which French, English and other groups can identity
x After Trudeau t decentralized federal government promoted
x Meech Lake and Charlottetown Accords attempt to gain approval of Quebec on the Constitution
x ξ€œΓ€ξ€žvÁ]ξ‚šZYΒ΅ξ€žξ€ξ€žξ€ξ€ƒP]Γ€ξ€žvξ€ƒΓ€ξ€žξ‚š}}Γξ€žξ‚Œξ€ƒξ€‚vξ€šξ€ƒξ‚Œξ€žξ€}Pv]ΓŒξ€žξ€šξ€ƒξ€‚ξ‚ξ€ƒ^Β΅v]ξ‚‹Β΅ξ€ž_t Quebec has still not signed
the Constitution of Canada
Cooperative Federalism
x Rise of the Welfare State: social programs and the bureaucracies to administer them expand
significantly (provincial jurisdiction)
x Federal government redistributes money to provinces but usually with conditions attached
(building a national welfare-state)
x More centralized
x Concept t neither level is subordinate (like classical fed), are closely intertwined
x Ex. Post 1945 t federal-provincial taxation agreements and shared-cost programs
x Results from:
x 1st t federal and provincial objectives must harmonize for public policy to be effective
x 2nd t public pressures forces federal government to establish minimum standards throughout
country for public services within provincial jurisdiction (health care)
x 3rd t two levels of government compete for tax revenues and need to coordinate to extent
x 4th t given vague division of powers, federal and provincial ministers and bureaucrats all seek to
maximize jurisdiction and overlap all levels of government
Decentralist Vision of Canada
x Competing Visions of Canada
x Pan Canadian Liberal Vision (federalists/Centralists): Bilingual beyond Quebec, Individual
Rights Based Citizenship
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