•Conservatism: A political ideology generally characterized by a belief in individualism and
a minimum of government intervention in the economy and society, as well as by tradition,
elitism, and opposition to change.
•Liberalism: An ideology based on a belief in the rationality of the individual and on
maximizing individual freedom, liberty, and self-fulfillment. Before 1900 this was assumed
to entail a minimal role for government, but post-1900 liberalism usually advocated a larger
role for the state and therefore was placed on the centre-left of the spectrum.
•Social Democracy: A leftist political ideology that emphasizes the principle of equality and
usually prescribes a large role for government to intervene in society and the economy via
taxation, regulation, redistribution, and public ownership.
•Sovereignty: Ultimate control or independence, whether in terms of Canadian national
sovereignty vis-a-vis other countries or of Quebec sovereignty vis-a-vis the federal
•Quiet Revolution: The dramatic change of values and attitudes, especially toward the state,
the new collective self-confidence, and the new brand of nationalism that characterized
Quebec in the 1960s.
•Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism: The Royal Commission established
in reaction to the Quiet Revolution in Quebec in the 1960s that recommended official
bilingualism as a way of keeping the country together.
•Official Languages Act: A law passed in 1969 giving citizens the right to deal with head
offices as well as certain local offices of the federal government in either official language,
and necessitating the hiring and promotion of francophone public servants.
•Bill 101: The 1977 Quebec language law that sought to make French the official language of
Quebec and put restrictions on the use of English in the courts, schools, and private sector.
For example, all commercial signs had to be in French only.
•The Clarity Act: The Act sponsored by Prime Minister Chretien in 2000 that fleshed out the
Supreme Court decision on Quebec separation and requires federal government approval for
the question asked.
•Aboriginal Self- Government: A demand by Aboriginal groups that they be able to govern
themselves. Aboriginals also want recognition that the right to inherent (in their having been
here first), and not a gift of the current occupants of their land.