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POLB80H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: De Jure, Nuclear Proliferation, Territorial Entity

Political Science
Course Code
Francis Wiafe- Amoako
Study Guide

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International Relations: The field of International Relations deals with the
relations among states or world governments through intertwining policies
ex. You can’t say you don’t want to deal with a certain state- US and Cuba.
Concerns the relationship among the world’s governments. Other actors that
make us understand the dynamics of the relationship include international
organizations, multinational corporations, individuals, domestic politics and
non-state actors. These elements contribute to the central trend of IR today-
globalization (2 key events in recent years= the September.11.2001 terrorist
attacks and the global economic recession in 2008-09)
Some of the issues include State Sovereignty, Global finance, Terrorism,
Human Security, Nuclear Weapon Proliferation, Economic Development,
Environment Sustainability, Organized Crime, Human Rights, etc
IR revolves around one key problem: how can a group serve its collective
interests when doing so requires members to for go their individual interests?
The origins of IR could be traced back to the Peace of Westphalia in 1648
which ended the Thirty Years war. The treaty of Westphalia established the
concept of State Sovereignty.
Collective security: the concept grows out of liberal institutionalism refers to
the formation of a broad alliance of most major actors in an international
system for the purpose of jointly opposing aggression by any actor. Success
depends on 1) the members must keep their alliance commitments to the
group and 2) enough members must agree on what constitutes aggression
ex. UN
Individual state interest poses a challenge to overall international interest
leading to collective action problems, namely Free Rider problem, the
tragedy of the commons, and Prisoner’s dilemma.
Prisoner’s dilemma: end up with a suboptimal outcome that is a negative
consequence of anarchy. Every state is motivated to act selfishly. you want
to be in nuclear power- like Iran is trying to do, it brings a deterrent against
an opponent, if the US has more nuclear land mines then they have leverage
and benefit, if we both cooperate then we both get more benefits
Collective goods problem: how to provide something that benefits all
members of a group regardless of what each member contributes to it
Ways of dealing with the collective action problems include (1) The principle
of Dominance: The establishment of a hierarchy where those at the top
control those below- Hegemony. E.g. UN Security Council; United States;
nuclear arsenals should be kept with the 5 permanent members of the
security council (principal of dominance- putting the hammer and power into
one state, Thomas Hobbes and the Leviathan), make only the states that are
the 5 permanent members of the security council the ones with the power,
just let a few countries have the power and we will all be safe (2) Reciprocity:
The rewarding of positive contribution to the society (tit for tat) and punishing
behaviors that pursue self-interest at the expense of the group; exchange
nuclear proliferation for economic gains. Ie. Libya in 2003, and North Korea
was warned by the US in 2006 that US would retaliate any NK arsenal used
against it. Its leader used to be Gadhafi, he was rewarded with an invitation
to take part in the meeting since he didn’t want anything to do with nuclear
weapons (3) Identity (Small Group Organization): Identify participants as

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members of a community. Many states with nuclear weapon capacities have
chosen not to do so. Ie. Canada is noted for neutrality this is what you believe
in and who you are
Refers to a concept where the power of one or more states are used to
balance that of another state (stronger state) or group of states
BOP argues that such counterbalancing occurs regularly and maintains the
stability of the international system. The system is stable in that rules and principle
stay the same but doesn’t imply peace.
Alliances play a key role by building up ones own capabilities against a rival
States “bandwagon” on the most powerful states
Building up one’s capability against rival is a form
A state is that organization that has a “monopoly on the legitimate use of
physical force within a given territory” (Max Weber). A state can be de facto
or de jure
A state is a territorial entity controlled by a government and inhabited by a
population/ citizens. Operated by an institution ie. Police, military
- 2 kinds of states-empirical de facto; a state that we all know is a state
but isn’t actually. Somalian constitution operates as a state ie Taiwan a very
common industrial state but has not reached a de jure state- in the judicial
sense an entity is a state under international law when it is recognized as
such by other states even if it does not have the monopoly of the legitimate
use of force within a given territory. Ie issue of Palestine when the 193 states
meet in a general assembly. To change it has to be recognized by 100 states
or more. Just in Africa there are 54 states. Only de jure states can enter into
international agreements and be represented on the international for a like
that of the United Nations.
Non-state actors include Intergovernmental Organizations (IGOs) such as
OPEC, WTO, NATO: is an intergovernmental military alliance which
encompasses western Europe and North America. Formed in 1949 and
headquartered in Brussels, Belgium. France is the only NATO member not
integrated in military since 1966. ; Nongovernmental Organizations (NGOs)
such as Red Cross, World Vision. Both IGOs and NGOs make up International
Organizations (IOs); Multinational Corporations such as Toyota, Wal-Mart
Levels of analysis are an attempt to explain the actors and processes that
influence world events. These are the individual, domestic, and systemic
levels. It is a means of explaining the why certain things happen in the world.
- 1st level= individual level, concerns the perceptions, choices and
actors of individual human being- great leaders make history (Lenin and the
Soviet Union was formed in 1945 and became a power, we can trace change
to an individual’s actions ie. Hitler)
- 2nd level= domestic level, the aggregation of individual actions within
the states influences a state actions in the international arena. Thus domestic
regimes of states drive international politics. Ie. The president of the US
needs to discuss with his advisors etc, before making a decision
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