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POLB81H3 (13)
Final

Final Exam Study Guide

10 Pages
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Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLB81H3
Professor
Ramcharan, Robin

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POLB81Exam
Part 1 Definitions (i): precise, concise meaning (ii) each terms central proposition about
world order
(iii) a key event/ example (iv) key authors /theorists
Neo-realism:
(i)The character of the international system itself is to blame for this perennial
struggle, anarchy is the permanent condition of the international system
A theory developed by Kenneth Waltz in which states seek to survive within an
anarchical system. Although states may seek survival through power balancing,
balancing is not the aim of that behaviour. Balancing is a product of the aim to
survive. And because the international system is regarded as anarchic and based
on self-help, the most powerful units set the scene of action for others as well as
themselves. These major powers are referred to as poles; hence the international
system (or a regional subsystem), at a particular point in time, may be
characterised as unipolar, bipolar or multipolar.
(ii)Explains order as a product of structural forces in international relations.
Anarchy is a key determinant / variable.
Conflicts and wars are predominant
Power of pole determine the distribution of power
(iii) The Cold War
(iv)Kenneth Waltz
Critical Realism
(i)Analysis on an assessment of the realities of all forms of power in global life.
Concept of the nature power and actors able to exert that power. Actors
include states, transnational organizations
a.Rooted in realism but depart from the hopeless position of realist cant
constrain mans evil mind
Vision of the future and proffer strategies that can get us to a particular
destination (normative content) the existing system as evolving through
the pressure of political, social, cultural, economic, ideological, and
civilization forces, as well as changing due to the impact of conjunctural or
defining political moments, such as wars, cold wars, catastrophic events,
and economic downturns.
(ii)Lens of describing what we see in changing /the shift in global politics
(iii)Oxfam protests the big head in the power of oil interest in the global
economy
(iv) Roy Bhaskar
International Society Approach
(i)Take the rationalist (between realist and Utopian-idealist), society of states
(international society) share common value and interests, conceive
themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations
(international law etc.)
Goal: preservation of state sovereignty and promote peace
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(ii)Refers to humanity as a whole, and international order among sovereign
states. Attached primary value (such as justice) to order in world politics
(iii)Rights and duties in international law
(iv) Hedley Bull
Dependency Theory:
(i)Focus primarily on the internal class relation of the core and periphery,
structure relation between metropoles (core) and satellites (periphery) of
international capitalist system. Metropoles continuously extract surplus
value from satellites areas
It exists between rich and poor countries, and within both rich or poor
countries
Solution to break out dependency: to end all ties with the international
economy, to institute socialism, to undertake intense programs of state-run
industrialization
(ii) Metropoles and satellites structure and relations
(iii) metropoles in industrialized countries extract surplus value from those
metropoles in Global South until the process end in the ultimate centre of the
capitalist systemthe United State
(iv)Andre Gunder Frank
World System Theory
(i)Departure from dependency theory, they share within the framework of
global capitalist economy, state is not only actor but also social classes and
regional grouping of states, all states have potential to move upward
Unit of analysis : world of capitalist system (move down from this level to
study individual country) comprehensive (macro) explanatory but provide
little room for political agency
semi-periphery –agent between the core and periphery (to explain the
reproduction and continued stability of a system defined by exploitation and
increasing disparities in wealth)
(ii)This world system expanded to the entire globe as a result of colonization,
with capitalism being the driving force
(iii)Semi-periphery countries Mexico, India, Brazil, and China, East Asian
Tigers
(iv)Immanuel Wallerstein
Constructivism:
Constructivist theory rejects the basic assumption of neo-realist theory that the state of anarchy (lack of
a higher authority or government) is a structural condition inherent in the system of states. Rather, it
argues, in Alexander Wendt's words, that 'Anarchy is what states make of it'. That is, anarchy is a
condition of the system of states because states in some sense 'choose' to make it so. Anarchy is the
result of a process that constructs the rules or norms that govern the interaction of states. The
condition of the system of states today as self-helpers in the midst of anarchy is a result of the process
by which states and the system of states was constructed. It is not an inherent fact of state-to-state
relations. Thus, constructivist theory holds that it is possible to change the anarchic nature of the
system of states. (See Alexander Wendt, 'Anarchy is What States Make of It', International Organization,
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46, 2, Spring 1992.)
Neoliberal Institutionalism
Encompasses those theories which argue that international institutions play an important role in
coordinating international cooperation. Proponents begin with the same assumptions used by
realists, except for the following: where realists assume that states focus on relative gains and
the potential for conflict, neoliberal institutionalists assume that states concentrate on absolute
gains and the prospects for cooperation. Neoliberal institutionalists believe that the potential for
conflict is overstated by realists and suggest that there are countervailing forces, such as
repeated interactions, that propel states toward cooperation. They regard cheating as the
greatest threat to cooperation and anarchy as the lack of organisation to enforce rules against
cheating. Institutions are described by neoliberals as 'persistent and connected sets of rules
(formal or informal) that prescribe behavioral roles, constrain activity, and shape expectations'
(Keohane, R. 'International Institutions: Two Approaches', in International Studies Quarterly 32,
1988). Robert Keohane is the scholar most closely identified with neoliberal institutionalism.
hegemonic conflict
When one social class exerts power over others beyond that accounted for by coercion or law,
it may be described as hegemonic. Hegemonic war has been a vehicle of systemic change
(shift in power), but not systems change. Victory in revolutionary and hegemonic conflict
has determined the direction of the world system, towards paternalism or fraternalism.
Hegemonic war and change (order)
Involve direct contest between the dominant power(s) in an international system and
rising challenger(s). Every state in system gets drawn into camps
Fundamental issue at stake is the nature and governance of the system.
Hegemonic wars are therefore unlimited wars: political, ideological,economic in terms of
significance and consequences (defeat and transformation of opposing society).
Unlimited means: All techniques and tactics may be used –destruction of the offending
social, political or economic system
International society Approach
Norms; BOP = value system (Bull)
Conversations (Wight)
Hobbesian / Machiavellian
Grotian
Kantian
State (actor), Anarchy (structure), Security (goal), Power (interest)
Its central idea being that states can form a society by agreeing amongst themselves to
establish common rules and institutions for the conduct of their relations and by
recognizing their common interest in maintaining these arrangements. This idea goes back
to Grotius. It is related to the contemporary American concept of regimes which also
stresses the development of common norms, rules, and institutions among states as a way
of regulating their relations. But whereas regimes refers to specific instances of
cooperation or coordination on particular issues, international society refers to what
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Description
1 POLB81Exam Part 1 Definitions (i): precise, concise meaning (ii) each terms central proposition about world order (iii) a key event example (iv) key authors theorists Neo-realism: (i) The character of the international system itself is to blame for this perennial struggle, anarchy is the permanent condition of the international system A theory developed by Kenneth Waltz in which states seek to survive within an anarchical system. Although states may seek survival through power balancing, balancing is not the aim of that behaviour. Balancing is a product of the aim to survive. And because the international system is regarded as anarchic and based on self-help, the most powerful units set the scene of action for others as well as themselves. These major powers are referred to as poles; hence the international system (or a regional subsystem), at a particular point in time, may be characterised as unipolar, bipolar or multipolar. (ii) Explains order as a product of structural forces in international relations. Anarchy is a key determinant variable. Conflicts and wars are predominant Power of pole determine the distribution of power (iii) The Cold War (iv) Kenneth Waltz Critical Realism (i) Analysis on an assessment of the realities of all forms of power in global life. Concept of the nature power and actors able to exert that power. Actors include states, transnational organizations a. Rooted in realism but depart from the hopeless position of realist cant constrain mans evil mind Vision of the future and proffer strategies that can get us to a particular destination (normative content) the existing system as evolving through the pressure of political, social, cultural, economic, ideological, and civilization forces, as well as changing due to the impact of conjunctural or defining political moments, such as wars, cold wars, catastrophic events, and economic downturns. (ii) Lens of describing what we see in changing the shift in global politics (iii) Oxfam protests the big head in the power of oil interest in the global economy (iv) Roy Bhaskar International Society Approach (i) Take the rationalist (between realist and Utopian-idealist), society of states (international society) share common value and interests, conceive themselves to be bound by a common set of rules in their relations (international law etc.) Goal: preservation of state sovereignty and promote peace www.notesolution.com
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