POLB81H3 Study Guide - Global Governance, Neoliberalism, Supranational Union
Summary- International Regimes
•International Regimes: “implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and
decision-making procedures around which actors’ expectations converge in a
given area of international relations.” (Krasner, 1982)
•Examines means and conditions under which states cooperate.
•The realist, neoliberal, and the Cognitivist perspectives under which regimes
occur even under anarchy.
Realism Neoliberalism Cognitivism
Central Variable POWER INTERESTS KNOWLEDGE
Metatheoretical Orientation RATIONALIST RATIONALIST SOCIOLOGICAL
Behavioral Model RELATIVE GAINS SEEKER ABSOLUTE GAINS MAXIMIZER ROLE PLAYER
Institutionalism WEAK MEDIUM STRONG
•Institutions are a set of customs, practices, relationships, or behavioral
patterns of importance in the life of a community or society; institutions are the
rules of the game, the norms that regulate behavior; they generate repetitive
and predictable behavior; they define the social constraints and opportunities
that actors face.
• Benefits: increased cooperation, stability, prosperity, the emergence of
•Cost: decreased sovereignty, new dimensions of conflict, restricted ability of
governments to react to local needs and values as well as to rapid changes and
• International Organizations (IO’s) are made up of inter-governmental
organizations ( IGOs) and non-governmental organizations ( NGOs)
•Institutions could be viewed as either a principal or an agent
•Global governance- The regulation of interdependent relationship between
states in the absence of a overarching global government/authority.
•Two Schools of Thought for global governance: 1. As an extension of liberal
activism and plural management in the international system; 2. As an
extension of some form of hegemonic or imperial power.
•The United Nations and the functions of its main bodies as well as Security
Council Resolution 242.
Summary- International integration
Integration is the gradual shifting upward of sovereignty from a state to a
regional or global structure(s); the ultimate is a merger of several states into a
single state or a single world government; complete integration faces
roadblocks as states resort to their rights to sovereignty.
Two theories of integration are functionalism and neo-functionalism
Supranationalism: A method of decision-making in multi-national political
communities where power is transferred to a broader institution bigger than
governments of member states.
The Cost of integration include the inability of states to shield themselves from
citizens of other states; Greater centralization of political authority, and
information; Resentments and disintegration sentiments arises; Difficulty of
managing and administering the integration itself.
Elements of integration are the creation of a free-trade area: with the lifting of
tariffs and restrictions on the movement of goods across borders; Custom
Union: member states adopt a unifying set of tariffs with regard to goods
coming from outside the free trade area; Common Market: allowing labor and
capital to flow freely across borders.
The EU as a classical example of integration; Its main bodies include, the
European Commission, Council of the European Union, European Parliament,
European Court of Justice, and the European Council
Lisbon Treaty: Included in Lisbon Treaty are: Creation of the President of the
European Council with a two and a half year term; Creation of a High
Representative of the Union on Foreign Affairs and security policy to present a
united position on EU policy (Currently Catherine Ashton from the UK); To make
the Union’s Human Rights Charter, The Charter for Fundamental Rights legally
Euro: Is the official currency used by 17 out of the 27 EU members.