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1. ―Global Civil Society‖
2. ASEAN- The ASEAN Foundation was established by the ASEAN Leaders in December 1997 during ASEAN‘s 30th
Anniversary Commemorative Summit to help bring about shared prosperity and a sustainable future to all 10 ASEAN
Member Countries, namely, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines,
Singapore, Thailand and Viet Nam. In recognition of the fundamental importance of improving the livelihoods and well-
being of the peoples of Southeast Asia, and the need to promote ASEAN awareness as well as people-to-people contact
through scholarships, fellowships and other exchanges, the Leaders of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) agreed to establish the ASEAN Foundation on 15 December 1997 in Kuala Lumpur during the Association‘s
30th Anniversary Commemorative Summit. The ultimate aim was to help bring about shared prosperity and a
sustainable future to all ASEAN countries
3. Bretton Woods Conference - Bretton Woods Conference (1944).The breakdown of the world economic system
during the 1930s Great Depression convinced American and British planners of the need for a new international
economic framework as part of the postwar settlement. Anglo‐American discussions led by U.S. Assistant Secretary of
the Treasury Harry Dexter White and the British Treasury representative John Maynard Keynes began in 1942. These
talks as well as intragovernmental planning in both countries led to an international conference held in Bretton Woods,
New Hampshire, in July 1944. Attended by representatives of forty‐five nations, the conclave produced the blueprints
for two new institutions, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the International Bank for Reconstruction and
Development (or World Bank), as well as discussions of a third, the International Trade Organization.
4. BRICs - Brazil, Russia, India, China. The acronym has come into widespread use as a symbol of the shift in
global economic power away from the developed G7 economies toward the developing world. Goldman
Sachs argued that, since they are developing rapidly, by 2050 the combined economies of the BRICs could
eclipse the combined economies of the current richest countries of the world. The four countries, combined,
currently account for more than a quarter of the world's land area and more than 40% of the world's
population. However, there are some indications that the "four BRIC countries have been seeking to form a
'political club' or 'alliance'", and thereby converting "their growing economic power into greater geopolitical
5. Colonialism- A policy by which a nation maintains or extends its control over foreign dependencies. Colonialism is a
system in which a state claims sovereignty over territory and people outside its own boundaries, often to facilitate
economic domination over their resources, labor, and often markets. The term also refers to a set of beliefs used to
legitimize or promote this system, especially the belief that the mores of the colonizer are superior to those of the
colonized. Advocates of colonialism argue that colonial rule benefits the colonized by developing the economic and
political infrastructure necessary for modernization and democracy. They point to such former colonies as the United
States of America, Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong and Singapore as examples of post-colonial success.
6. Contractarian Philosophy - Any of various theories that justify moral principles or political arrangements by appealing
to a social contract that is voluntarily committed to under ideal conditions for such commitment.
8. Cotonou Agreement - Signed in Benin in 2000. To be in force for 20 years. Articles 19-33 set out the ―developmental
strategies‖, including ―institutional development and capacity building.‖ The Agreement, on the one hand, is to be
compatible with the WTO.
, measures to mitigate the effects of short-term fluctuations in ACP states‘ export earnings (Art. 68)
,guarantees for private sector investment (art. 77)
On the other hand, it gives preferential status to the ACP vis-à-vis the EU. But unlike Lome, the aid given to the states is
to be accounted for, which is why it is supervised by the EU. This is the ―capacity building‖ and ―institutional
The Cotonou Agreement‘s main objectives are the reduction and eventual eradication of poverty and the gradual
integration of African, Caribbean and Pacific States into the global economy, whilst adhering to the aims of sustainable
development The Cotonou Agreement, signed on 23 June 2000 for a period of twenty years and revised for the first time
in 2005. Built on thirty years of experience, it is designed to promote and expedite the economic, social and cultural
development of the African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) States, contribute to peace and security and promote a stable
and democratic political environment. In accordance with Article 95 thereof, the Agreement may be revised every five
years (with the exception of the provisions concerning economic and trade cooperation).
9. Development Assistance Committee (DAC) The Development Assistance Committee (DAC) is a unique international
forum where donor governments and multilateral organisations – such as the World Bank and the United Nations –
come together to help partner countries reduce poverty and achieve the Millennium Development Goals. This means
seeking new ways of working to increase not only the quantity, but also the quality of aid – in other words, to improve
aid effectiveness. The DAC issues analysis and guidance in key areas of development and forges ties with other policy
communities to co-ordinate efforts. Its members also work together through peer review to assess each others‘ aid
policies and their implementation so as to promote good practice. The DAC‘s objective is to be the definitive source of
statistics on official development assistance (ODA).
10. Development Economics- Strategies designed to raise living standards in less economically developed countries.
Traditionally, these have emphasized: the improvement of the institutional framework and infrastructure; increased
agricultural productivity; and lowered rates of population growth, but recent attention has turned to the development of
labour-intensive economic activity and the enhancement of human capital.
11. Developmental State - The term developmental state first referred to the phenomenon of state-led macroeconomic
planning in Asia, where the state had autonomous political power as well as control over the economy. The process
attracted attention as it emerged that the poor appeared to benefit more than other regions reporting similar economic
growth. A later definition, the democratic developmental state, was introduced to include the elements of democracy.
The document collection in this section aims to provide an overview of policy issues and the democratic developmental
state, to support those who aim to influence the policy development process.
12. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) - The Economic Community Of West African States
(ECOWAS) is a regional group of fifteen countries, founded in 1975. Its mission is to promote economic integration in
"all fields of
economic activity, particularly industry, transport, telecommunications, energy, agriculture, natural resources,
commerce, monetary and financial questions, social and cultural matters.
13. Edward Said - a postmodernist, who argued that colonialism was neither a finite era nor a particular institutional
arrangements of superordination or subordination. As he continued, both the departing colonialists and the arriving
nationalists failed to comprehend the enduring consequences of colonial rule. Cultures, economics, and institutions are
deeply embedded in the former colonies that their futures remained dependent upon the heritage of colonial rule. He said
that in 1978.
14. Eurocentrism- belief in the preeminence of Europe and the Europeans, centering on Europe or emphasizing the
values, history, perspective, etc. of the European tradition, sometimes so as to exclude other cultural groups within a
15. Fair Trade- Fair Trade is a trading partnership, based on dialogue, transparency and respect, that seeks greater equity
in international trade. It contributes to sustainable development by offering better trading conditions to, and securing the
rights of, marginalised producers and workers – especially in the South. Fair Trade organisations (backed by consumers)
are engaged actively in supporting producers, awareness raising and in campaigning for changes in the rules and practice
of conventional international trade. The two international Fair Trade standard setters, the Fairtrade Labelling
Organizations (FLO) and the World Fair Trade Organization (WFTO) agreed in January 2009 on common principles to
define Fair Trade. The Charter of Fair Trade Principles aims to provide a single international reference point for Fair
Trade through a concise explanation of Fair Trade principles and the two main routes by which they are implemented.
product certification Fair Trade route (otherwise known as Fairtrade product label) covering mostly agricultural
integrated Fair Trade supply chain route (no product label / the Fair Trade certification is for organisations not
16. FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization: the United Nations agency concerned with the international organization
of food and agriculture The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations leads international efforts to
defeat hunger. Serving both developed and developing countries, FAO acts as a neutral forum where all nations meet as
equals to negotiate agreements and debate policy. FAO is also a source of knowledge and information. We help
developing countries and countries in transition modernize and improve agriculture, forestry and fisheries practices and
ensure good nutrition for all. Since our founding in 1945, we have focused special attention on developing rural areas,
home to 70 percent of the world's poor and hungry people.
17. FDI - Foreign Direct Investment is any form of investment that earns interest in enterprises which function outside
of the domestic territory of the investor. FDIs can be broadly classified into two types: outward FDIs and inward FDIs.
This classification is based on the types of restrictions imposed, and the various prerequisites required for these
investments. An outward-bound FDI is backed by the government against all types of associated risks. This form of FDI
is subject to tax incentives as well as disincentives of various forms. Different economic factors encourage inward FDIs.
These include interest loans, tax breaks, grants, subsidies, and the removal of restrictions and limitations. Vertical
Foreign Direct Investment takes place when a multinational corporation owns some shares of a foreign enterprise, which
supplies input for it or uses the output produced by the MNC. Horizontal foreign direct investments happen when a
multinational company carries out a similar business operation in different nations.
18. Gini Coefficients -Gini-coefficient of inequality: This is the most commonly used measure of inequality. The
coefficient varies between 0, which reflects complete equality and 1, which indicates complete inequality (one person
has all the income or consumption, all others have none). Graphically, the Gini coefficient can be easily represented by
the area between the Lorenz curve and the line of equality. In this figure, the Lorenz curve maps the cumulative income
share on the vertical axis against the distribution of the population on the horizontal axis. In this example, 40 percent of
the population obtains around 20 percent of total income. If each individual had the same income, or total equality, the
income distribution curve would be the straight line in the graph – the line of total equality. The Gini coefficient is
calculated as the area A divided by the sum of areas A and B. If income is distributed completely equally, then the
Lorenz curve and the line of total equality are merged and the Gini coefficient is zero. If one individual receives all the
income, the Lorenz curve would pass through the points (0,0), (100,0) and (100,100), and the surfaces A and B would be
similar, leading to a value of one for the Gini-coefficient.
19. Global South - The nations of Africa, Central and Latin America, and most of Asia - collectively known as the
Global South - face great challenges and offer real opportunities. Political, social, and economic upheaval are prevalent
in many of these nations; at the same time, the populations of the global South and their emerging markets offer
immense hopes for economic growth, investment, and cultural contribution.