POLB90H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Chronic Poverty, Extreme Poverty, Marshall Plan
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POLB90; MIDTERM FALL2012
POTENTIAL ESSAY QUESTIONS
Why isn’t the whole world developed? What are some of the main factors you think
are central to explaining underdeveloped and why?
The whole world isn’t developed equally for several reasons. Different parts of the world
have different kinds of land, which may or may not be fertile and that would limit the kind
of resources they would have to make a profit, etc. There are also countries that may be
land locked and some that are near the bodies of water, which makes it easier for them to
transport their products to other countries or areas, and also to travel to other countries to
discuss their different business ideas. Their infrastructure must be developed and
maintained for this to happen. There are also different cultures and traditions that may
have taught them what they should or should not do since the beginning. That might not
have showed people how to develop in the community, society, etc. They also do not get
the education they may need to know about the different ways of life, and would be
isolated from the rest of the world. Political corruption must be eliminated so that the rich
will no longer be able to take advantage of the poor and allow them to develop and grow.
Education must also be made available for all citizens so that they will be able to read and
write. They will also be able to learn things that are not traditional so that they will be able
to do business with other countries or communities to free their market and expand on
their imports and exports. Inequality must also be reduced so that everyone will have a
fair opportunity to do what he or she does best in whatever field they choose to be in. Also
so that different genders will also be able to go to school and will not be taken advantage of
by the public since it may be considered a ‘norm’ for females to stay at home and take care
of everything there
Are the MDGs an effective way of combating global poverty? Why or why not?
They are effective in certain aspects, but also ineffective in others. There are 8 goals; to
eradicate extreme poverty and hunger, to achieve universal primary education, promote
gender equality (empower women), reduce child mortality, improve maternal health,
combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases, ensure environmental sustainability, and
develop a global partnership for developments. With so many goals to try to achieve, it
makes it difficult to ensure that all of them are being fulfilled. They are achievable in the
sense that each goal is linked and reinforcing, international cooperation is being aligned
with MDG priorities, concrete goals that can be monitored regarding how well the progress
is going, and they can also see what they can be doing to change their methods if it is too
slow. It doesn’t work because it is very grand, like mentioned previously, because there are
too many different goals to try to fulfil and they are too short sighted. It also involved the
geopolitics of the country; because there are things that you cant do, like changing how the
environment of the country is. There is also not enough incentive resource flows because
the other countries wont provide all of the monetary funds that they may need for the
multiple projects that the MDG had defined as their goals.
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Is foreign aid helpful or harmful to development in the global south? Explain.
It is both helpful and harmful to the development in the global south, depending on how
the aid is used or distributed. Of course it would work well because it reduces poverty, or it
has the intentions to do so. It would also improve foreign relations because it creates
interactions with different countries, and if the donor country sees that there are chances
of great development for the country, then they may keep an eye on them for future
partnerships. It would also promote economic growth because of that. If they are given
monetary funds, and its given to the government, then there is no guarantee that the
money will be used toward those that need it, and how it will be used because the money
may not be monitored after it being handed over to the government. If the assistance is
given in the form of services, and building on the infrastructure of the community, then it
will be helpful because the results of I can be measured through the progress of the
development of public buildings like schools and hospitals, and also through literacy levels
increasing, and etc. This will also in turn increase their human development index and
their standard of living. The assistance can also be used to improve their living
environments, like helping citizens get out of both extreme poverty as well as chronic
poverty. Sometimes, unfortunately, aid and growth have no connection with one another.
They may have different kinds of poverty, like extreme or chronic, and it may not be fixed
with the aid instantly, and may take a lot of time for it to improve to be able to start to
develop. With the foreign aids that are given to the global south, there may also be cultural
domination, because since the first world countries my feel that their way of life is ideal,
and is what is considered to be ‘developed,’ they will impose their cultures into the country
and try to get them to assimilate to the cultures and traditions of theirs with will insinuate
the melting pot theory.
SHORT ANSWER TOPICS
Mainstream View of Development
It is the conventional view, and it believes that with income, comes all the solutions
to all problems. The Mainstream view sees development as significant and measureable
economic growth and the emergence of social, economic and political institutions. This can
be signified with institutions like banks.
Some weaknesses include a lack of environmental maintenance and a disregard for
traditions and cultures
With this view of development, there is an implication that development is
industrialization and westernization.
Human Rights View of Development
This is an alternative view. They see development as the satisfaction of various
dimensions of human needs. This focuses on democracy, human rights and relative
This may limit the economic development
This may be an over optimistic view that all countries can follow this formal and still
benefit from the same results, but there is no universal homogenous state of society that all
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