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POLB90H3 Study Guide - Midterm Guide: Political Corruption, External Debt, Human Security

Political Science
Course Code
R Rice
Study Guide

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Possible exam questions:
What are the three major views on development?
Conventional View (Mainstream)
Human-Rights View (Alternative)
Post-Development View (Radical)
What does the concept of development mean according to each of these views?
Conventional View (Mainstream)
As significant and measureable economic growth and the emergence of modern
social, economic and political institutions
Human-Rights View (Alternative)
As the satisfaction of various dimensions of human needs, including low levels of
material poverty, low levels of unemployment, relative equality, democratization of
political life, true national independence, good literacy and education levels, relatively
equal status for money, environmental sustainability, and human security
Post-Development View (Radical)
As a façade for continued global domination by the north
Which do you agree with and why?
I agree with the conventional view for several reasons. Most of the time, when
someone mentions development, there is comparison to North America, and western
Europe, which is considered to be the term ‘westernization. Even in Canada, we are being
influenced by the USA greatly, which indicates that they are very influential even in a well-
established and developed country. With it being measurable, it can show other countries
how developed the countries are and how far along they are in their developments in
comparison to other countries.
Is the term ‘third world’ still relevant? Why or why not?
It is not as relevant as it used to be because the terms that are used now are more specific
in terms of what stage they are developed, like underdeveloped, developing, emerging, and
so on.
Why isn’t the whole world developed? What are some of the main factors you think
are central to explaining underdeveloped and why?
The whole world isn’t developed equally for several reasons. Different parts of the world
have different kinds of land, which may or may not be fertile and that would limit the kind
of resources they would have to make a profit, etc. There are also countries that may be
land locked and some that are near the bodies of water, which makes it easier for them to
transport their products to other countries or areas, and also to travel to other countries to
discuss their different business ideas. Their infrastructure must be developed and
maintained for this to happen. There are also different cultures and traditions that may
have taught them what they should or should not do since the beginning. That might not
have showed people how to develop in the community, society, etc. They also do not get
the education they may need to know about the different ways of life, and would be
isolated from the rest of the world. Political corruption must be eliminated so that the rich
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will no longer take advantage of the poor and allow them to develop and grow. Education
must also be made available for all citizens so that they will be able to read and write. They
will also be able to learn things that are not traditional so that they will be able to do
business with other countries or communities to free their market and expand on their
imports and exports. Inequality must also be reduced so that everyone will have a fair
opportunity to do what they do best in whatever field they choose to be in. Also so that
different genders will also be able to go to school and will not be taken advantage of by the
public since it may be considered a ‘norm.’
The values of the leaders and citizens
May be different from people in the developed countries
May facilitate or impede the progress of developing.
Natural resources and Natural disasters
An abundance of natural resources are sometimes called a curse
May be targeted by the developed to exploit them
Poor management, corruption and more instability
Natural disasters can ruin crops and will weaken the economy even further and can
kill citizens
No resources to deal with the disasters and the effects of it
International economic environment
Can undermine the government policy autonomy in the south
Can boost or undermine economic progress
Excess population undermines development gains
Overpopulated countries are less developed
33 people a minute
Education and health care
Essential ingredients for economic development
Political instability
Leads to brain drain as best citizens leave the country
Lack of foreign investment
Destroys public works
Drains resources away from public investment
Makes everything more expensive
External debt
Deprives countries of money that could have been used for development purposes
Interest on loans changes their GDP
What are the two central promises of development that had been betrayed and by
Made by the leaders of the nationalist independence movements and the revolutions in the
third world
The people’s labour would now be used for their own progress, not for the
enrichment of foreigners.
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