POLB91H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Fidel Castro, Civil Society, Iranian Revolution

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Published on 15 Apr 2011
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LECTURE 1:
Domestic Power Structures and Development
I. Course Intro.
II. State Power
III. DevelopmentTraps
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I. Course Introduction
[see syllabus under “Course Information” on web page]
II. State Power
A major determinant of development strategies and outcomes is the character of the state, and the
domestic power structures and political coalitions underpinning it.
Types of State Power:
1. Despotic Power: the power to control and suppress society (Global South) roots in colonial
area
2. Infrastructural Power: the power to administer and transform (Global North)
Roots of Despotic power- state borders and institutions were imposed by colonial rulers,
challengers were put down by brutality weak infrastructure power, strong despotic power
(paradox)
-purpose of colonial rules, extract resources, setting up infrastructure that supported this goal
-the purpose and point of colonial rule was extraction not developmental
-the power structure of the colonial state was entrenched by the rolling elites, after independence
to protect their own interests
III. Development Traps
Development Trap: the vicious circle of poverty that prevents a country from developing
Collier’s Thesis: the real challenge of development is that there is a group of countries at the
bottom that are falling behind, and often falling apart (e.g. the bottom billion). SOLUTION:
economic growth
Policy instruments- aid (targeted) not conditional, aid selectivity (reinforcing positive aspects),
military intervention, laws and charters, trade policies
Conflict Trap
-War makes a country poor, and poverty makes a country prone to war
Natural Resources Trap
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-resource wise”, countries with an abundant supply of oil (single valuable natural
resources) tend to have lower levels of development (DUTCH Disease)
Landlocked with Bad Neighbours Trap
-The poorer your neighbours, the more likely youre likely to be poor
Bad Governance Trap
-Poor governance leads to poor policies and low economic development
Midterm questions
-2 main types of power arrangements that characterize the state
-How do power structures impact upon a country’s development
Lecture 2- POLB91
I. What and How Does Comparative Politics Compare?
Comparative Politics is:
a) a sub-field within the discipline of political science
Behavioralists- scholars that emphasize statistical analysis and universal theories by examining a
large number of cases or by using complex mathematical equations
Interpretivists- scholars that emphasize an in-depth analysis of politics within a few cases, paying
attention to specific country contexts.
Area Studies- the detail examination of politics within a specific (e.g. one) geographical setting,
not necessarily involving any explicit comparison.
MIDTERM: is the field of area studies still relevant for political science/development studies
today? Having a keen eye for individual countries but at the same time have the ability to
generalize and understand the underlying similarities within several countries. Relating
quantitative and qualitative, mid-level theories that have explanatory value when comparing
countries together
b) a method or approach to the study of politics
Most Similar Systems Design- the study of differences across similarities; select 2 or more
countries similar in all respects except for the phenomenon being investigated
Indigenous Movement Formation
Ecuador + Bolivia
Both have large indigenous population, weak party systems, both colonized by Spain in south
America, weak Marxist left, weak indigenous movement
Peru- no indigenous movement, strong Marxists left, strong class identities
Most Different Systems Design- the study of similarities across differences; select 2 or more
countries different in most respects except for the phenomenon under investigation, challenge:
way too many differences to investigate, languages, mass distance
Democratic transitions from below- El Salvador and South Africa
II. Themes for Comparative Analysis
a) Democratization- rapid spread of democracy in the Global South, challenging political science
theories and ideas that democracy is only present in certain levels of development. Brazil,
Mexico and Nigeria are transitional rather than consolidated democracies. Under these formal
institutions there are many informal practices ( façade) that violate formal procedures of
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democracy, key: to look for the stabilizing and destabilizing consequences of recent democratic
transitions and the persistence of undemocratic elements
b) The Role of the State- Puzzle: how do states in the developing world deal with the many
challenges to this authority that they face from both internal and external forces? Key: Pay
attention to the way that states in different countries react to international and domestic pressures
c) The Politics of Collective Identity- politics of class politics of language, region, religion,
ethnicity and etc, puzzle: how does collective identity affect a countrys distributional politics,
that is, the process of deciding who gets what? Key: watch for conditions that lead to political
violence
III. Concepts for Comparative Analysis
1) Corporatism: a system in which interest groups become an institutionalized part of the
political structure
3 C’s; corporatism, clientilism, caudillismo serve to exclude the marginalized from
meaningful political participation and the benefits of economic development
a) Pluralism- a system in which interest groups organize and compete freely and in which policy
outcomes are the result of the groups’ competing pressures
b) Societal Corporatism
c) State Corporatism- a state system in which states use interest group structures to control and
dominate citizen groups and interests they are allowed to voice
State is the dominant actor, interest groups are consulted only to gain to their compliance, appear
to legitimize the state, a form of control
2) Clientelism (patron-client networks): the dispensing of public resources by political power
holders or seekers who offer them as favours in exchange for votes or other forms of public
support. Leads to corruption, breeds preferential treatment, inequality, reinforces the status quo,
development by accident not design
3) Caudillismo (strong-man rule): the organization of political life by local bosses whose power
and influence derives from personal fortune, family or regional association. Leads to the
undermining of central government policies, constraitns the emergence of infrastructural power.
Undermining of national economic development
IV. Modernization and Dependency Theories Revisited
Modernization Theory: proposes that all countries go through similar stages of development,
from traditional to modern (read: Western industrialized democracies)
Dependency Theory: asserts that economic growth in the advanced capitalist countries created
Third World poverty, core nations and periphery nations,
1) what is clientelism and why is it important to development,
2) explain corporatism relation to state and realtion interest in the three systems.
3) Essay question: is the field of area study still relevant to political studies?
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Document Summary

Domestic power structures and development: course intro. [see syllabus under course information on web page] A major determinant of development strategies and outcomes is the character of the state, and the domestic power structures and political coalitions underpinning it. Types of state power: despotic power: the power to control and suppress society (global south)  roots in colonial area, infrastructural power: the power to administer and transform (global north) Roots of despotic power- state borders and institutions were imposed by colonial rulers, challengers were put down by brutality  weak infrastructure power, strong despotic power (paradox) Purpose of colonial rules, extract resources, setting up infrastructure that supported this goal. The purpose and point of colonial rule was extraction not developmental. The power structure of the colonial state was entrenched by the rolling elites, after independence to protect their own interests. Development trap: the vicious circle of poverty that prevents a country from developing.

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