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Mid -term pol93 1.docx

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Political Science
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Lucan Way

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Mid-term POL93
The long-term individual doesn’t not matter, what matters is the long-term
historical changes.
o This process is nearly impossible to alter, more long term, and very
An individual dose matter and you can over come the advantages that have come.
o Dependent on actions of individuals, unpredictable and any out some is
Structuralism Vs. Voluntarism
Between these two-structuralism doesn’t look at what individual is they are uniform and
all based on history. And because it is not based on the individual it is more predictable.
Voluntarism where it takes into consideration the individual makes the theory more
unpredictable and can change at anytime because people can overcome what they don’t
like at any time
Dependent and independent variable ****
Dependent variable (DV)  phenomenon that is effect by other variables
What you are trying to explain – the puzzle
Any kind of outcome
The death of John Kennedy
Ethnic violence
Independent variable – causes of DV
Solo gunman
Age, race, sex
Is a set of permanent administrative legal, bureaucratic and coercive institutions
that enforce order,
As system of government or administrative  the set of rules by which political
power is gained and allocated
I.e. democratic elections.
A body that is in power at a given time and which has the power to make and
enforce rules.
Democracy Procedural
Is the process of democracy
1) Free and fair elections
2) Adult suffrage – everyone can vote
3) Elected governments real power
4) Protection of Civil Liberties
5) Level Playing field
Point to real problems/deficits in developed democracies
Maximalist VS. Minimalist definition of democracy
Defined: is the existence of multi-party
-Political equality, gender equality, civic
republicanism, economic democracy, and
deliberative democracy
-Too many people, lots of opinions.
-Conflict with some personal gain of groups/
Define: existence of absence of multi-
party elections
Easy to identify
Lots of cases
- Lumps very different countries in same
category – i.e. Sweden and Uzbekistan
Combine too many different dimensions (economy, political institutions)
Often don’t exist in real world – thus limited analytical utility
Focus on specific outcomes
1. Economic equality
2. High Participation
3. High Accountability
Level vs. Uneven playing field
-Concept of fairness where each player
has a chance to succeed.
-They all play by the same set of rules
-Incumbent abuse of the state generates
such disparities in access to resources,
media, or state institutions that
and no external interference affects
these abilities.
- More ideas for civil liberties. Allows
people to make a say which leads to
opposition’s ability to organize and
compete for national office is seriously
-Less international criticism
-Undermines democracy even absent
significant civil liberties violations
Botswana, Tanzania – no opposition
despite few civil liberties violations
Cultural approaches
-Political outcomes the outgrowth of long-standing values
-Focus on values held by population as a whole
-Don’t look at interests or economic structure, look at religion
Critiques of cultural approaches
No mechanism for cultural change
In the 1960’s, argument that catholic countries in Latin America could not be
democratic – but virtually all Latin American countries democratic today
-No casual Mechanism
Authoritarianism a system of rule through coercion so popular values not
obviously relevant
Blames the victim
- Its not popular values, it’s the state enforcement  the fear that makes people follow.
Development and democracy
-Focus on product of liberalism.
-Focused on the individual over the collective
-Distrust in state
-Non-hierarchical – ultimate authority rests with individual
-Importance of competition
Civil Society
Network of powerful, independent, non-governmental organizations
Trade unions
National Rifle Association
Mostly defend rights against state – promote democracy

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Mid-term POL93 Structuralism  •  The long­term individual doesn’t not matter, what matters is the long­term  historical changes.  o  This process is nearly impossible to alter, more long term, and very  predictable  Voluntarism •  An individual dose matter and you can over come the advantages that have come.  o  Dependent on actions of individuals, unpredictable and any out some is  possible.  Structuralism Vs.  Voluntarism Between these two­structuralism doesn’t look at what individual is they are uniform and  all based on history. And because it is not based on the individual it is more predictable.  Voluntarism where it takes into consideration the individual makes the theory more  unpredictable and can change at anytime because people can overcome what they don’t  like at any time Dependent and independent variable **** • Dependent variable (DV)  ▯phenomenon that is effect by other variables  – What you are trying to explain – the puzzle – Any kind of outcome • The death of John Kennedy • Authoritarianism • Ethnic violence  • Independent variable – causes of DV – Solo gunman  – Oil – Age, race, sex State • Is a set of permanent administrative legal, bureaucratic and coercive institutions  that enforce order,  Regime •  As system of government or administrative  ▯the set of rules by which political  power is gained and allocated  • I.e. democratic elections. Government  •  A body that is in power at a given time and which has the power to make and  enforce rules.  Democracy Procedural  • Is the process of democracy • 1) Free and fair elections  • 2) Adult suffrage – everyone can vote • 3) Elected governments real power • 4) Protection of Civil Liberties • 5) Level Playing field  Substantive Benefits: – Point to real problems/deficits in developed democracies               Maximalist VS.   Minimalist definition of democracy Defined: is the existence of multi­party   Define:  existence of absence of multi­ government.  party elections Benefits:  Benefits: - Political equality, gender equality, civic  – Easy to identify republicanism, economic democracy, and  – Lots of cases deliberative democracy Problems: Problems ­ Lumps very different countries in same  - Too many people, lots of opinions.  category – i.e. Sweden and Uzbekistan - Conflict with some personal gain of groups/  individuals. Problems: – Combine too many different dimensions (economy, political institutions) – Often don’t exist in real world – thus limited analytical utility  Focus on specific outcomes  1. Economic equality 2. High Participation 3. High Accountability Level vs.  Uneven playing field - Concept of fairness where each player  - Incumbent abuse of the state generates  has a chance to succeed.  such disparities in access to resources,  media, or state institutions that  - They all play by the same set of rules  and no external interference affects  opposition’s ability to organize and  these abilities. compete for national office is seriously  -  More ideas for civil liberties. Allows  impaired. people to make a say ▯ which leads to  - Less international criticism democracy. - Undermines democracy even absent  - significant civil liberties violations Botswana, Tanzania – no opposition  despite few civil liberties violations Cultural approaches ­ Political outcomes the outgrowth of long­standing values ­ Focus on values held by population as a whole ­ Don’t look at interests or economic structure, look at religion Critiques of cultural approaches ­ Static • No mechanism for cultural change ­ Wrong •  In the 1960’s, argument that catholic countries in Latin America could not be  democratic – but virtually all Latin American countries democratic today ­ No casual Mechanism •  Authoritarianism a system of rule through coercion so popular values not  obviously relevant • Blames the victim  ­  Its not popular values, it’s the state enforcement  ▯the fear that makes people follow.  Development and democracy - Focus on product of liberalism.  - Focused on the individual over the collective - Distrust in state - Non­hierarchical – ultimate authority rests with individual - Egalitarian - Importance of competition  Civil Society • Network of powerful, independent, non­governmental organizations – Trade unions  – Church – National Rifle Association • Mostly defend rights against state – promote democracy  Steven Fish’s interpretation of Mongolian democracy - The democracy was a government who didn’t need to build on economic but more  work on the technical things. - Regime in Mongolia creating and choosing how they are going to run thing  ▯ basically presidential regime and unitary state.  - Mongolian democracy is not invulnerable. The country's economy began posting  positive growth rates in 1994 and has since maintained them, and stabilization  policies brought the annual inflation rate down to a respectable 18 percent in 1997.  ▯ hints the high rise of unemployment. - The Mongolia institution of democracy seems to always switch there electoral laws  have stimulated party formation, every election  ▯cause for conflict and zero­sum  game. -  Having lack of education on voting for everyone leaving elite to do the voting. -  They also have government in too much control over mass media ▯ which can be seen   as communist. - Overall they have a voulnerist sistuoation and made there way by hoice to change  there system Presidentialism and democracy ­  Presidentialism is more stable  ▯ but the higher up the power the less you have a  chance to stop the crisis before it happens.  Parliamentarism and democracy - Makes a flexibility to political process ▯   any in the leisguter may be able to makes  changes  Linz’s interpretation of the problems of presidentialism - The first is the president's strong claim to democratic, even plebiscitarian, legitimacy;  the second is his fixed term in office. -  There is points where the legislature speaks above the president and stretching of  power happens ▯ where they question who speaks for the people? -  The fix term in office is rigidity and un­continuous political process.  ▯The rule o
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