POLA90 Final Study Guide
Greed and Grievance-October 27
Causes of Violence
1.Kingship Relations- Form of capital and insurance, but also creates
obligations for involvement in others’ violent fighting
a.Lack of national consolidation renders some states unable to
readily control entire population.
b.Some are loyal to other groups above and beyond states,
creating conditions ripe for inter-group conflict.
3.State consolidation and conflict
a.External pressures often forced states to straighten own house
b.Colonization, international finance and cold war allowed many
governments to worry
d.Easier to exit, than voice complaints (or wage war)
4.Patrimonialism/Neo-patrimonialism and clientelist policies may create
losers and winners.
a.Losers may have grievances that are never addressed.
b.More (and worse) clientelism (like prebends- patterns of
political behavior which rest on the justifying principle that
[state] offices should be competed for and then utilized for the
personal benefit of office holders as well as of their reference or
support group, common in Nigeria) when there is little
competition and alternation in office
5.Lack of public goods- If government is not providing public goods to
everyone, violence is more likely by government and by groups working
outside of government (not necessarily against gov’t)
6.Corruption- government is not working for the people, leading to
1.Coordination and collective action.
•Self-interest may lead one to work against what is best for
3.Principal agent problem
•Power given to agent may lead them to control principal
Causes of Conflicts
-rich states are less likely to fight, middle class states rarely fight, BUT poor
3.Poverty and lack of opportunity for youth
4.Lack of democracy
5.History of conflict
6.Cause war v. Fuel War
a.Lowest level of violence to highest
i.Sporadic or isolated riots
ii.Persistent, organized and/or coordinated but lightly armed riots /
iii.Short, heavily armed riots/rebellions/coups
iv.Durable, heavily armed conflicts.
a.Civil war conflict areas supply most of world’s illegal drugs.
b.If external sources of funding pull out, conflict ceases.
c.War creates alternative sources of profit, power and protection.
•Dominated by rent-seeking and extraction and trade in
primary products – very short-term (but potentially very
•Some get very rich and powerful through war- thus those who
profit are reluctant to end war (greed)
Greivance- rebels seek to rid nation of an unjust regime
a.Ethnic or religious hatred
i.Collier- diversity reduces conflict EXCEPT where one large groups
lives alongside a minority (i.e. Sri Lanka, Rwanda)
ii.There are many more conflicts than the ones we hear (i.e. Kosovo,
iii.Differentiate between ethnic patterns and ethnic causes of war
- grievance needed to mobilize and motivate soldiers and funders
c.Lack of political rights
d.Government economic incompetence
Failure of grievance
a.Only grievance that matters: 5 years of economic decline. Why?
b.Collier: collective action problem
•Public goods (justice, revenge, and relief from government)
leads to problem of free riding
•Rebellions start small, but they will not succeed if small.
•Must fight before justice & rebel leaders may not implement
justice if victory is realized.
Greed- rebellions arise because rebels aspire to wealth by capturing resources
- solves the collective action problem...
a.Need to pay soldiers (i.e. Russian Civil War, many soldiers deserted for
opportunities to make money)
b.Benefits of rebellion confined to those who are participating in rebellion
i.Rebels get the mineral wealth, drug profits
ii.Huge incentive to continue to fight and keep the rebel groups
a.Long term uncertainty, means businesses that thrive are focused on
b.Criminal enterprises (theft) – no police
c.War increases cost of entry and reduce efficiency of market
d.Prebends and protection rackets
Effects of Greed and Grievance
1.History of grievance leads to repeated conflict
- many places simmer, but do not ignite
-some solutions like local autonomy can address grievances
2.Greed + resources leads to sustained conflict
–can pay/feed soldiers
CBS News Video on Jerusalem: City of David
- Palestinians v. Israelis
-2000 President Clinton, areas populated by Jews would be Israel; those
populated by Arabs would be Palestinians capital (east)
-Israel settlers have moved East, and areas with ethnic controversy like Silwan
(City of David) has been extremely complicated
-no possibility of creating two states, stronger settlers, can only be one nation
-City of David, try to find evidence to confirm what is in the Bible
- King David conquered the city for the Jews, thus Jerusalem belongs to the
-government agency (El’Ad) oversees the dig dig, digging under the Arab homes
in Silwan (which according to Clinton should be part of a Palenstinian state)
-Jews have settled into Silwan living under heavy security
- Jerusalem is their only home, Arabs have Mecca and Medina
-Mayor Nir Barkat is doing all he can to make sure East Jerusalem remains
under Israeli sovereignty
- Mayor Barkat wants to create a Bible-themed garden, called King’s Garden, as
a tourist park, which will require the demolition of 22 Arab homes, he sees it as
improving and upgrading the area (slums that were built illegally), and those
who are evicted will be given the chance to build new houses nearby, which can
only be done by building on top of other homes
-angry that El’Ad is purchasing houses and moving Jewish families in
-Jawad Siyam, an activist leader has leaded a string of escalating confrontations
-some have become violent, rock throwing, fighting, gun guards paid for by the
government through taxes
-see the dig as an aim for moving the locals out
Sierra Leone- November 3
Cry Freetown Film
-a British colony to which freed slaved returned to in the late 1700s
-after independence in 1961, governments were dominated by a small political
elite who profited from the trade in diamonds, in which little benefitted the rest
of the population
Models: coordination and collective action, prisoner"s dilemma. Self-interest may lead one to work against what is best for society: principal agent problem. Power given to agent may lead them to control principal. Rich states are less likely to fight, middle class states rarely fight, but poor states fight: easier to exit, than voice complaints (or wage war, patrimonialism/neo-patrimonialism and clientelist policies may create losers and winners. Inequality: religious/ethnic strife, losers may have grievances that are never addressed, more (and worse) clientelism (like prebends- patterns of political behavior which rest on the justifying principle that. Grievance needed to mobilize and motivate soldiers and funders: economic inequality, lack of political rights, persistent, organized and/or coordinated but lightly armed riots , government economic incompetence rebellions, short, heavily armed riots/rebellions/coups, durable, heavily armed conflicts. Implications: civil war conflict areas supply most of world"s illegal drugs. b. If external sources of funding pull out, conflict ceases: war creates alternative sources of profit, power and protection.