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POLC38H3 Study Guide - Structural Adjustment

Political Science
Course Code
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

of 2
NOV 3-Conflict and Collusion in Sierra Leone-KEEN
Sierra Leone has an extractive economy and autocratic political system
It was under British rule
The colonial state allowed chiefs, headmen and elders to define a customary law that
asserted and legitimated their power and control over the allocation of resources
The economic rewards of the paramount encouraged intense and sometimes violent
competition for office
Development programmes were a threat to chiefs if they offered new choices and new
sources of loans and patronage
The continued power of chiefs and the weak state bureaucracy helped ensure that
political energy was directed, towards local power struggles
From 1935-1956: Diamond Boom
British company had rights to the mining
Extracted all the diamonds
There was illegal mining
An important ethnic distinction has been between the Creoles of Freetown and the
other groups up-country
Rivalry between the Temne speakers of the north and the Mende speakers of the
Siaka Stevens political system was based on extending patronage to a relatively
small but shifting group of insiders, whilst intimidating any outsiders who expressed
their dissatisfaction too vigorously
Exports of coffee, cocoa, palm kernels, diamonds, bauxite but had no value to Sierra
The legal system strongly discriminated against the poor and the politically restive
The use of violence by politicians set a dangerous example that was to be followed by
some youths
Stevens bringing labour leaders into parliament and by bringing army and police
chiefs into the cabinet
The people used state resources to their advantage
Stevens favoured corrupt officials and associated businessmen at the expense of
members of the public and rural groups in particular
Privatization did not bring about an efficient and competitive market, nor did it
create a market that could be effectively taxed by the state
Though, Stevens just increased his own fortune
Stevens system under strain: economic decline and structural adjustment
In early 1980s economic crisis, fluctuations in prices of food
They attracted IMF support
Rural inequalities were rising
Education declined
Education was hit by inflation
Stevens system under strain: Momohs drive against smuggling
Momoh attempted to control smuggling and corruption with a view to reviving the
states ability to tax its own economy whilst cutting the budget and trade deficits
Army gaining more power and independence
If Momoh had been able to gain a greater degree of control over the diamond
industry, this might have helped him to raise sufficient revenue to consolidate his
control and thereby obtain further revenue