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POLC71H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Scottish Enlightenment, Barter, Exclusion Crisis


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLC71H3
Professor
Margaret Kohn
Study Guide
Final

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POL B 71: Exam Review Guide
The exam will be composed of short answers. There will be three types of short
answers: questions, quotations, and concepts. For quotations and concepts, you should
explain the SOURCE and SIGNIFICANCE of the item. Often the questions can be
answered in two or three sentences, but you may want to write a more detailed answer in
order to convey the depth of your knowledge.
Example:
“Though the water running in the fountain be every one’s, yet who can doubt, but that in
the pitcher is his only who drew it out?”
The key answer is this: John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, explaining how
private property emerges from common property through labor. He uses this argument to
explain the legitimacy of private property. (This answer would get 8 out of ten points)
Extra details that could strengthen your answer (for the full 10 points):
This justification of private property is part of Locke’s response to Filmer, who
thought that the theory of the state of nature undermined the security of private
property. OR
This defense of private property is an important part of bourgeois ideology (the
ideology of the rising commercial classes) OR
The labor theory of private property was also used to justify colonialism in the
Americas.
__________________________________________________________________
Positive law, natural law and divine law
On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria
Positive law : the conventions of a specific society
oIt is posited and sanctioned by some local authority.
oIt applies to residents, citizens and inhabitants of a place. This form of law
also applies to tourists who are in the area.
Natural law : the principles of conduct that are accessible to all men based
on reason
oVictoria uses natural law to argue that being humans, even the Indians
have the right to be treated in a better more equal manner by the Spaniards
then they were currently being treated. He also uses natural law to justify
the possession of land and property by the Indians.
Divine law : the principles of conduct that are revealed through scripture or
faith

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oDivine law cannot be universally applied according to Victoria. But
Victoria’s opponents use divine law to justify the conquest of the
Americas by claiming that divine law promotes the spread of Christianity
and so should be spread to all places and delivered to all people including
the Indians
What are the two bases of the law of nations according to Victoria?
On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria
Derived from natural law or derived from the consensus among nations.
What is Victoria’s main argument against papal title of native lands?
On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria
Papal title refers to the fact that the pope at the time was considered by
many to be the ruler of the world and was given powers over the Christian
world. As such the Spaniards argued that if the Pope who is ruler of the
Christian world sanctions the conquest of the Americas then, the conquest
is justified. Victoria argues against this and claims the power of the Pope
extends only to the Christian world and over Christians not over non-
Christians. As a result, to take away the Indians land, was to steal from
them as the pope had no jurisdiction over Indians land and no authority
over non-Christians
Name three arguments that Victoria says could justify the Spanish conquest
of the Americas.
On the Indians, Recently Discovered by Victoria
Right to travel: everyone including the Spaniards has the right to travel to
other people’s lands, and cannot be stopped from doing so insofar as the
travelers are not causing hard to the residents of the land. If under such
conditions travelers are stopped from entering the land to make use of the
land, then conquest is justified. Justifies this by claiming it is a part of the
law of nations and therefore applies universally.
Right to commerce and trade : commerce and trade between nations at the
time was a common practice and so Victoria saw this right as universally
applicable. Therefore if the Indians stop the Spaniards from trading or
refuse to trade with them then war is justified.
Universal right to preach: every religion has the right to spread its message
and if it does so peacefully and people convert willingly, then the Indians
have no right to end the process. Nor do they have any right to harm new
converts. If they do, then war is justified
In Book One of Utopia, what are Raphael’s two main arguments against
royal service?
Utopia by Thomas More, Book I
Wealth and power are not important
The court is not interested in the public good
What is Raphael’s view of the role of the Philosopher King?
Utopia by Thomas More, Book I
More believes happy state can be established with philosopher king. Thus,
for the happy state, philosophers should give kings advice. However,

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Raphael believes many philosophers advice the king in their published
works. Nevertheless, the kings are “deeply infected with wrong ideas in
childhood to take any philosopher’s advice.” In this respect, as experience
with Dionysius demonstrates, philosopher’s advice would not change
kings’ infected wrong ideas and their greedy ambition to conquer more
land.
More: Well, just think how infinitely remote that happy state must remain,
if philosophers won’t even condescend to give kings a word of advice!
Raphael: “Oh, philosophers aren’t as bad as all that. They’d be only too
glad to offer advice – in fact many of them have done so already in their
published works – if only people in power would listen to them. And
that’s doubtless what Plato meant. He realized that kings are o deeply
infected with wrong ideas in childhood to take any philosopher’s advice,
unless they became philosophers themselves – as he learned by experience
with Dionysius.”
The Enclosure Movement
Utopia by Thomas More, Book I
Thomas More described “the enclosure movement” as problematic aspect
of the society. It is the process of privatizing arable land to private land.
However, it causes oligopoly by accumulating wealthy for few people by
stealing from peasants. “He develops this theory by referring to the political
leaders as “bad teachers, who more readily beat their students than educate
them”(More,p.11).
Most of Utopia is an argument against private property. What is the main
defense of private property that the character More offers in Book One.
Utopia by Thomas More, Book I
More argues that private property increases prosperity (Ppl work
harder/more motivated)
Name three of the physical features of Utopia (the geography or architecture)
and explain their significance.
Utopia by Thomas More, Book II
Island was originally a peninsula but a 15-mile channel was dug by King
Utopos to separate it from the mainland. Its geographical isolation
prevents invasion from the land.
Ports are naturally and artificially protected fortifications. Only Utopians
know the waterway to avoid these natural obstacles. Moreover, it can be
strategically used to destroy enemy warships.
The capital city, Amaurot, is located directly in the middle of the crescent
island. Provides convince for cities in the island. Aircastle central position,
maxium 20 mintues apart of distance, each land is not extend or used only
for cultivating.
Towns are all identical. Its quality is even higher than Britain. There are
no locks on the doors. It indicates the “crime free” environment of Utopia.
It contrasts Europe’s crime problems
Explain the utopian system of government.
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