POLC71H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Animal Husbandry, Tillage, Plutocracy

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Political Science
Course
POLC71H3
Professor
POLB 71 final exam review 3
Secularism
Secularism is the principle of separation of government institutions, and
the persons mandated to represent the State, from religious institutions
and religious dignitaries. In one sense, secularism may assert the right to
be free from religious rule and teachings, and the right to freedom from
governmental imposition of religion upon the people within a state that is
neutral on matters of belief.
What is the difference between the old and the new political economy?
The differences between the new political economy and the old
are of fundamental importance; some of them may be stated as
follows:
First. The old economy lived by itself and did business on the
individualistic plan. It formed no intimate associations with other
sociologic sciences and did not recognize them when it met them on the
street. The new economy recognizes its relatives, lives in the family
group, and
BSac 56:221 (Jan 1899) p. 121
works in close association with all the other members of it. This is a
matter of the utmost moment. It will not do to deal with material wealth
as a thing by itself; it must be studied as part of a great whole. The
science of wealth must be coördinated with ethics, psychology,
government, art, evolution, and every other body of thought that affects
human life. If your economy is not in harmony with your morals and
your government, if the science of wealth does not conform to the
principles of ethics and development, your social science is not an
organic whole but a heap of broken fragments. The arch will not stand
unless each stone is chiseled with reference to the rest Political
economy must be formed so that it will not refuse to fit its fellow
sciences, but will take its place as a perfect stone in the arch of
sociology.
If your government says, ―Democracy, power in the people,‖ and your
economy says, ―Aristocracy, plutocracy, power in the few‖; if your
jurisprudence says, ―Justice,‖ and your economy says, ―Get rich‖; if
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your ethics and your religion say, ―Love, service, devotion,‖ and your
economy says, ―Self-interest, conquest, mastery,‖—there is civil war in
your social science.
Four stages theory
Smith‘s terminology and definitions can be confusing. In the first
stage, Smith‘s ‗age of hunters‘, subsistence depended on the ‗wild
fruits and wild animals which the country afforded‘ (LJ(A) i.27).
People in this stage would now be called hunter-gatherers. The
second stage, the ‗age of shepherds‘ or of ‗pasturage‘ (LJ(B) 149),
is characterised by the herding of animals, but not the tilling of the
soil. The animals herded by ‗shepherds‘ need not be sheep. What is
critical in Smith‘s account is that the domestication of animals
came before the domestication of plant s, to make a distinct stage
in development. ‗We find accordingly that in almost all countries
the age of shepherds preceded that of agriculture‘ (LJ(A) i.29).
This
3 There is nothing directly relevant to the four stages theory in the Theory of Moral
Sentiments. 3
stage, Smith thought, was typically nomadic when the pasture in
one area was exhausted, shepherd and flock moved on. In Smith‘s
story the ‗age of agriculture‘ or the ‗age of farming‘ (LJ(B) 149)
added (arable) farming (tillage, the cultivation of the soil), though
the keeping of animals and the eating of meat certainly continued.
Agriculture in this sense required investment in clearing and
cultivating the land, and allowed food supply and population to
increase. I shall use the word ‗agriculture‘, as Smith did, to mean
settled agriculture with a large arable component, and ‗pasturage‘
to mean animal husbandry without tillage.
The commercial stage is different in that it is not defined by the
main source of food. Commerce (trade) plays some role in all
stages of society, while the commercial stage, as Smith defined it,
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Document Summary

Secularism is the principle of separation of government institutions, and the persons mandated to represent the state, from religious institutions and religious dignitaries. In one sense, secularism may assert the right to be free from religious rule and teachings, and the right to freedom from governmental imposition of religion upon the people within a state that is neutral on matters of belief. The differences between the new political economy and the old are of fundamental importance; some of them may be stated as follows: . The old economy lived by itself and did business on the individualistic plan. It formed no intimate associations with other sociologic sciences and did not recognize them when it met them on the street. The new economy recognizes its relatives, lives in the family group, and. Bsac 56:221 (jan 1899) p. 121 works in close association with all the other members of it. This is a matter of the utmost moment.

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