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POLC90H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: United States Department Of The Treasury, Participatory Action Research, World-Systems Theory

Political Science
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R Rice
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POLC90 Final Exam Review
History of Development Ideas
Participatory Action Research
Indigenization of Development Theory
Linear Stages of Development
Institutionalist Explanations
Dependent Development
Underdevelopment is a process, not a condition (ie: one country can “underdevelopment”
Third world poverty is a product of first world prosperity
International and historical factors are key to understanding underdevelopment (ie:
imperialist pasts)
The world capitalist system undermines/hinders third world development
There is a “core” mega city that sucks all the resources, while the poor are underpaid for
The “periphery” countries are limited by their “satellite” status (orbiting around the core)
Says that satellites experience their greatest development when their ties to the core are
the weakest. As well as the regions that are the most underdeveloped today are the ones
which have had the closest ties to the “core” metropolis in the past (ex: Haiti used to be
the greatest sugar exporter, now it is in ruins)
World Systems Theory
Countries do not follow a linear path to progress, categories are not fixed
Development as a mode of production (capitalism is exploitative)
One country’s gain is another country’s loss
Introduces the “semi-periphery”
Core countries: those who specialize in high technology and capital-intrinsic goods
(they produce the most advanced goods)
o Ex: US, Canada, Western Europe, Australia, New Zealand, Japan
Periphery: Specializes in low technology, labour intensive goods
o Ex: Most of Africa, poorest nations of Asia and Latin America
Semi-Periphery: Produces goods with intermediate levels of technology and capital
intensity (a mix of the others)
o Ex: China, India, South Africa, Brazil, Egypt, Russia,, most of Eastern Europe
Limitations: more descriptive than predictive about where countries will end up
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Washington Consensus
Term coined in 1989 by economist, John Williamson
Describes a set of ten relatively specific economic prescriptions that he considered made
up the standard reform package promoted for crisis-ridden developing countries
Based on institutions like the IMF, Work Bank and US Treasury Department
o Fiscal policy discipline, redirection of public spending, tax reform, competitive
exchange rates, trade liberalization, etc
The prescriptions include policies in areas like macroeconomic stabilization, economic
opening when it comes to trade and investment and the expansion of market forces within
the domestic economy
The phrase has come to be used in a broader sense, to refer to a more general orientation
towards a strong market based approach (neoliberalism)
Neoliberal Counter Revolution
Accumulation by Dispossession
Grand Narratives
An abstract idea that is supposed to be a comprehensive explanation of historical
experience or knowledge
Grand Theories
Term invented by American sociologist C. Wright Mills
Refers to the form of highly abstract theorizing in which the formal organization or
concepts takes priority over understanding the social world
1980s, it was reformulated and included theories like structuralism etc
Capitalism and Development
Rational Choice Explanations
Theories of Imperialism
Imperialism can be understood as “Empire-ism”
Refers to a general system of domination by a state of other states, regions or the whole
“imperium” means to command
Sociological and Psychological Theories: A pattern of leaned aggressive behavior based
on competition
Strategic and Political Theories: Imperialism has a manifestation of the balance of power.
Strong states dominate weak ones
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