Lecture 1: Who are the dispossessed?
1) What is the concept of dispossession mean? Give an example.
Dispossession- • Referred to the sense of injustice having import taken away land, good
natural resources and opportunity rights.
• Edward Said (1994) the politics of disposed the struggle for Palestinian self-
• David Harveu “accumulation by dispossession” neo-liberal politics in African America,
disparity in wealth, rights taken away”
• Communal land was taken away by privatization, workers = dispossessed from the right
to unionize, from their livelihood
• Argentina, Bolivia, Equador
2) What are the three strategies for organizing on the part of the dispossessed? Give
1) Civil society coup/electoral politics, the parliamentary road to social and political
reform: involves the toppling of democratically elected leaders by way of social
movements. It is about working within the system. This is a form of change to deal with
dispossession. Electoral politics play the primary role in direct action change where
parliamentary involvement leads to political reform. Latin Americas Left Turn is a great
example of this.
e.g. Ecuador- indigenious Pachatakike party
Bolivia- indigenous worker MAS
Brazil- social movement workers party (PT)
2) Direct Action: Revolutionary road to social change(working from outside the system).
One prominent example of this are protests against current regimes to advocate regime
change such as Mexico’s Zapatista. Brazils peasant based rural landless movement and
Argentinas unemployed workers movement.
3) Local developments: Capturing & transforming local level power by working
municipalities & communities to bring about change.
Running for office mayor, working at the local level, working with NGOs.
Uruguay (FA-Broad front)
-community based health programs. They are getting the community involved often led
Lecture 2: Latin America in Historical and Political Perspectives
1) What are the three main legacies of colonial society that continue to undermine
social justice in the region today?
People, institutions and land/labour
Colonial society-Prior to Spanish conquest, 30-70 million native people displaced by
way of Spanish tactics which was to get to the top of the power structure. Since these
native peoples were spread out so thinly and not united against the Spanish conquests; the
Spanish used their advanced military armaments. Colonial society made up of majority
indengious peoples as well as Europeans and African European. The European
population made up 2% of the colonial society but were the elite of the society. The
hierarchy of colonial society was completely unbalanced and repressive.
Colonial insititutions-Characteristic included that they were feudal and medieval in
nature. As well as being rigid authoritarian and tied to the Catholic Church. Hierarchy of
institutions was based on King/Queen->vice roy (leading all the provinces)
->captain/general->large landowners->and the Catholic Church.
Colonial land & labour-Hacienda/lantifandias which are large landed estates awarded to
European colonists. Hacienda or patron which is like a boss-man who dispenses favours.
Client-patron relationship. Enocomienda system is the right to use native people and their
land in exchange for instructing them in Spanish language & Catholic Church.
Microfundios is a small farm of less than 2 hectares where free-hold indigenoius
communities lived. Repartimiento system: the practice of requiring free-hold indigenous
people to set aside a specified number of months for free labour for the state or private
2) What are the social questions and how is it addressed by the Latin America?
Social Question: The debate over the appropriate role of the urban working classes
within the economic and political system in the early 20th century in Latin America.
State Corporatism: A system of interest group representation whereby the marginalized
classes are allowed to gain access to the state by way of peak trade union and later
peasant associations. 1960s was a period of peasant incorporation by way of agrarian
reform. Up until 1960s, peasants were not incorporated.
You are allowed to talk to people through these channels to the officials.
Labor was incorporated into the system.
Peru: June 24th “day of the Indian” also known as the “day of the Indian”
Lecture 3: Revolutionary Struggles I: Cuba and Nicaragua
1) What is the difference between first and second generation of revolution? Give
First generation revolutions: “ Great revolutions”, characterized by tensions
surrounding the transition from feudalism to capitalism and by class struggle.
For example, French (1789), Russian( 1917), Chinese ( 1911) and Mexican (1911)
Second generation revolutions: Revolutions carried out in the 3rd world in the post
WW2 period. Cuba is the perfect example of this revolution. (case study: the Cuban
revolution and/or Nicaraguan revolution)
The differences from first generation cases: economic dependency, neo-colonial societies
and international vulnerability/ U.S.
2) Which revolutionary path (Cuban, Nicaraguan) is more effective to bring
development and why?
Revolutionary Institutionalization: The re-establishment 7 recognition of state
structure, including the creation of new institutions.
Revolutionary Consolidation: Occurs when a significant majority of the social
Cuba: Consolidation w/o institutionalization
Characteristics: a monopoly of power by Fidel Castro ( no political opposition). Strong
aversion to institutionalization. Education, health care, they mobilize the loss. Highly
egalitarian economic and social system.
-foreign investment in Cuba
Nicaragua: institutionalization AND consolidation.
Democratic politics, they want political and economic systems; open elections.
1) destroy structure of privilege and inequality
2) people had a say in the political system
Characteristics: economic inclusion: social programs to reduce poverty and inequality.
Political inclusion: broadly accessible governing structures.
Give examples: civil society coup/electoral politics, the parliamentary road to social and political reform: involves the toppling of democratically elected leaders by way of social movements. This is a form of change to deal with dispossession. Electoral politics play the primary role in direct action change where parliamentary involvement leads to political reform. Latin americas left turn is a great example of this. e. g. ecuador- indigenious pachatakike party. Brazil- social movement workers party (pt: direct action: revolutionary road to social change(working from outside the system). One prominent example of this are protests against current regimes to advocate regime change such as mexico"s zapatista. Argentinas unemployed workers movement: local developments: capturing & transforming local level power by working municipalities & communities to bring about change. Running for office mayor, working at the local level, working with ngos. They are getting the community involved often led by parties. www. notesolution. com.