POLC99 EXAM STUDY GUIDE
•Referred to the sense of injustice having import taken away land, good natural resources and
•Edward Said (1994) the politics of disposed the struggle for Palestinian self-determination
•David Harveu “accumulation by dispossession” neo-liberal politics in African America, disparity in
wealth, rights taken away”
•Communal land was taken away by privatization, workers = dispossessed from the right to unionize,
from their livelihood
•Argentina, Bolivia, Equador
COLONIAL SOCIERTY/ COLONIAL INSIUTIONS
Legacies of Colonial Society
The changing face of people in Latin America. 3 ethnic groups: indigenous peoples, Africans and
•Europeans at the top: 2%
•Peninsulares: white born in Europe (Spain/Portugal)
•Criollos/creoles: whites born in the new world
•Mestizos: Indigenous and European ancestry
•Mulatto: African and European ancestry, they were considered even worse than pure Africans since
they inherited the worst of genes.
•Indigenous and African: 95%.
Contemporary Latin America
•Upper class: 5%—10% (descendants of the Europeans)
•Middle Class: 10%—25% (mixed ancestry, immigrants from other countries)
•Lower Class: 65%—85% (Mulato, Africans).
•Your status is largely determined by your race. You can whiten yourself by becoming an actor or a
soccer star, by attaining status in society, fame through the military, etc.
•Characteristics were feudal and medieval. At the top were the King and Queen of Europe. The
colonial authority was the vice roy lived in the colonies and represented the King and the Queen.
Below him was the Captain General who ran municipalities. At the bottom level (local level) were
the large landowners. The Catholic Church was an arm of the state and transcended through all the
hierarchy. The church had control over the educational system.
•Latin American was born feudal in terms of having all these institutions in place.
COLONIAL LAND AND LABOUR/ SOCIAL QUESTION
•Spanish conquistadors were the 2nd and 3rd sons from back home. Only the 1st son could inherit the
properties in Portugal and Spain. They stood no chance of inheriting land back in Europe.
•The landlords (patrons/harendado) owned haciendas/latifundos (huge feudal landed estates).
Encomienda System: The right to use native peoples on your newfound land in exchange for Christianizing
Micro fundio System: small farm of less than 2 hectares. Freehold indigenous communities lived on these
plots of land. They had to work for the landlord because it wasn’t enough land to grow crops and live well.
They had to approach the patrons and work for him. Labour in exchange for subsistence pay.
Repartimiento System: practice of requiring indigenous groups to set aside a specified number of months
for free labour. Either works for the private (i.e. hacienda) or public sector (i.e. state infrastructure). Each
male had to do that for 7 years. It was a form to disguise slavery.
The Era of the Social Question: The debate over the appropriate role of the working classes with the
political economical system in Latin America. What do we do with the workers? DO we include them or do
we repress them?
CORPORATISM was the answer: a system of interest group representation where the states decided how
to organize society, usually through peak trade unions (1930s). Late, peak peasant association (1960s). The
state can structure how the state should be organized. You’re either a peasant or a worker. You’re just a
working class, not a woman or religious person. If you support our policies, we’ll make sure the payout and
pensions. Peasants didn’t fully come on board until the 1960s.
Corporatism is a system of economic, political, or social organization that views a community as a
body based upon organic social solidarity and functional distinction and roles amongst individuals.
Corporatism is related to the sociological concept of structural functionalism. Corporate social interaction is
common within kinship groups such as families, clans and ethnicities. Political scientists may also use the
term "corporatism" to describe the process of licensing and regulation by a state for incorporating social,
religious, economic, or popular organizations into a single collective body.
SECONDARY GENERATION REVOLUTIONS
Political Revolution: seeks to transform the state, but not economic or social strives (e.g. wars of
Second Generation Revolutions: revolutions carried out in the Global South in post WWII period.
Sociological Model by Wickham-Crowley: seeks to explain the social conditions for the expansion and the
success of 2nd Generation revolutions.
Necessary and sufficient conditions:
1. Strong and sustained peasant support
2. Sufficient military strength (strength of the government and revolutionary group)
3. Mass loyalty to the revolutionary movement.
Agency Model by McClintock: focuses on the revolutionary movements, ideology, strategy, structure, and
Cuba (Insurrection & Victory)
Chronology of Key Events:
•1898 The U.S. declares war on Spain and takes possession of Cuba. Area of prohibition on alcohol
became a place of gambling, prostitution, and alcohol.
•1940s-1950s Heavily corrupt military dictator Fulgencio Batista held power. Ruled for 20 years.
•1953 Rebels led by Fidel Castro launched an attack against an army barracks. Raul and Fidel fled and
got captured and spent 15 years in jail.
•1955 Batista declares amnesty on the student group “26th of July” and lets them out of jail. Castro
leaves for Mexico to begin plotting a new and bigger revolutionary force.
•1956 Castro returns with a group of 82 men to launch an armed struggle. Raul and Ernesto Che
Guevara are among the 82 men. They were betrayed by the local peasants and fell to the army. Only
12 survived and made it to the mountains. There, they amassed a larger base of support. Towards the
end Batista became too repressive and isolated. He attacked the middle class and universities.
•1959 Batista flees the country to Dominican Republic and Castro enters Havana as a liberating hero.
•Dictatorship/ lost support
•Cross class support (middle class and working class)
•Small group of professionals, university students.
Chronology of Key Events
•1926 U.S. Marines occupy Nicaragua; Avgusto Cesar Sandino, a liberal party activist, leads a
•1934 Sandino was assassinated
•1936-1957 Anastasio Somoza dictatorship, brutal, corrupt, selling out the country
•1961 Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSCN) forms
•1979 Final offensive of the FSCN defeats Somozas forces + Junta of National Reconstruction led by
Daniel Ortega takes power.
Reestablishment and reorganization of state structures including new institutions.
Occurs when a significant majority of the population embraces the core of the revolutionary project. The
true test of the success of a revolution, when it wins the hearts and minds of the population.