POLC99H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Trade Union, Lesson Learned, Movement For Socialism (Bolivia)

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Published on 30 Apr 2015
School
UTSC
Department
Political Science
Course
POLC99H3
Professor
Dispossession- Having something of yours taken away unfairly –refers to the same of the
injustice in having somethings important taken away lands good natural resources
opportunities or rights it’s a thing or quality that is missing or stolen is lost. In Relation to
Latin America- Indigenous people in Latin America, people lives culture were taken
away of the Spanish conquest. Todays dispossession still exist due to globalization
workers have been dispossessed of the collective origins.
What does the concept of dispossenion refer to? Example
Dispossession defined: refers to injustice- having something of yours taken away
unfarily- rights, lands, resources- the sense of injustice in having something important
taken away, land, goods, natural resources, opportunities, or rights. It is a thing or quality
that is missing, stolen, or lost.
Eg. Colonization
How to move from being dispossessed to being incharge of a country 3. Strategies
1. electoral poltics
2. direct action
3. local dev
trying to undue structural injustice-
Mestizaje- This was known to be the racial mixing
Whites rulers monopolized political or economic power.
Indian were the tributaries required to pay tribute in the farm or labour and goods- got the
work done
Blacks Slaves no special protection from the state but could earn freedom
These administrative categories no longer exist racial class system exclude these groups
from participating in society
Elites were faced with a new task to created an identity what became their solution mixed
person metizaje- a social process rather than a strictly biological one based on an
individual's degree of acculturation and integration ( westernization) gave rise to a new
social subject
governments in one region have attempted to divide indigenous people categorized them
in ways that obscure their ethnicity discount them from national policy debates and
disintegrate as obstacles of development
Why did indig. Ppl reject the state led project of mestizaje?
Wade article- early colonial societies- indig. Pop +African slaves at the bottom.
Administratively different to the state
Colonial administrative ccategories- whites (rulers monopolized political and
economic power), Indians, blacks
Creole- new world born white ( a white person born in latin America, new world)
creole focused on economic power-
creoles became leaders in independent latin America- faced the task of
bulidng a new nation- lack of national identity. Created the term- mestizaje
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mestizaje- racial mixing- solution. A social process rather than a strictly
biological one, based on an individuals degree of acculturation and
intergration (westernization) gave rise to a new social subject: Mestized-
came to be seen with as national pride
reject mestizaje to adopt pluri nationalism?
Neoliberal Multiculturalism- 1980-1990s
1980 debt crisis in global south lead to weakening corporate institutions. The active
recognition of a minimal cultural rights as bilingual education constitutional recognition
but a rejection structural changes ( Land power wealth distribution)
Recognition policies were offered but not distributed
Multiculturalism is mestijaze of our millenium
Decolonization
Refers to the revalorization, recognition and re-establishment of indigenous
cultures traditions and values within the institutions, rules and arrangements that
govern societies.
oEntails reimagining the nation state as indigenous
oAttempt to create a national indigenous identity
Racism and patriarchy: two key underpinnings of the colonial state
oBolivia has a vice ministry on decolonization and a unit on
depatriarchalization
Gender parity in every aspect of government
Vice ministry of:
indigenous justice
Indigenous health
Indigenous autonomy
Coordination with social movement and civil
society
§ 2010 antiracism and antidiscrimination law
§ 2012 language rights law
o Structural limits to what a country in the global south can do to eliminate
decolonization.
Limits to Change
1. Process is heavily dependent on the political will of the president
a. You need the president to be on board, what happens when the president changes?
2. There are serious tensions between indigenous autonomy and the resource
dependent state- led model of development
a. How can you have true autonomy is the gov. can force you to leave your land?
3. The dismantling of inherited state structures, institutions and practices is
fraught with difficulties
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is decolonization possible? Exam q, what lessons does the bolivian case offer to the
rest of the americas?
What is decolonization? How did it come about?
Decolonization refers to the revalorization, recognition, and reestablshmnet of
indigenous cultures, traditions, and values, within the insitutions rules and
arrangments that govern society. Entails reeminaging nation state as indig.
National indig cultura, new political culture and new citizenship- new model
citizen indignoeus person-
Decolonization came about in Bolivia with MAS party- evo morales-indig.
Rights cornor stone of his admin. New consit- to recognize 37 languages,
adopts for plurinationalism
is decolonization possible? Exam q, what lessons does the bolivian case offer to the
rest of the americas?
Moraels- two key factors of colonial state- racism, and patriarchy- underpinnings
of colonial state
-vice ministry of decolonization- unit on de-patriarchalization – new law that
every institution must be 50% women
- vice ministry of indigenous justice, indigenous health (alternative healing, west
and native)
vice minter of coordination of social movements
- biggest challenge to change the burecracy
2010 anti racism and anti discrimination law
2012 language rights laws- all public and private- have staff trained in local indig.
Language
Bolvia: structural limits to how much a country of the global south can do.
Limits to decolonization:
Limits to change
dependent on the political will of the president
there are serous tensions between indig. Autonomy and the resource dependent
state led model of development- how can there be autonomy if the government
can make you leave your land? – ultimate authority over economy- mining
dismantelling of inherited state structures, institutions and practices is fraught
with difficulties
New Social Movements
· New social movement model: 1990s/ 2000s (Identity or cultural based approach)
o Focus on movement autonomy, identity, meaning
Assumptions:
Contemporary social movements are the products of ideological, political and
cultural processes, not class conflicts.
New social movements are rooted in society, not the state
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