Lecture 3

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16 May 2011
Lecture 3 shklar obligation loyalty and exile
Hirschman has a difficulty of explaining the reason why people stay. He understands the
voice option but he doesnt understand the conditions in which people would choose to stay
and voice
Why would a consumer/citzen would go, stay back
He understands the reason is loyalty. But he has trouble of defining loyalty its origin and
its power to hold exit at bay. Hirschman treats loyalty as an empty bucket with no
information other than its ability to postpone exit.
Shklar argument has much to do with political evil and the conditions people live in which
allow them to stay or move from a country. It wasnt that simple to get away from political
evil and was a shadow which affected how one framed problems she wanted to work on the
relationship between political evil and political loyalty.
Exiles are limiting the turner, or the polar case ? worst case assumption and sheds light
on political loyalty and political obligation
Political obligation
Why should I obey the state?
Benefits from government, utilitarian states of mind
Disobedience results in consequences from the state
You agreed to obey so you cant disobey
The state and those who represent it are legitmate and that is benefiting and doing good for
its citizens
But what if the state is not doing good and benefiting the citizens?
Serious of questions will be asked
Is it one area in which the state is unjust or in many ways ? the degree of unjust
How long do I give this state to repair itself
What are the option to change
Political obligation is defined as the laws and law like demands made by public agencies-
Judith sklar
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Shklar believes that political obligation is rational and reasonable
Political loyalty
Voluntary commitment Loyal choice commitment one you have made
Deeply affective and emotional and not primary rational
Theres a little choice of being loyal she mentions the church state and family its something
that springs from emotion
Yet all these states they have no control over for example race kinship, family we have no
choice over. We automatically become loyal to such institutions which have no rational
thought involved at all. Loyalty is governed by sentiment.
Inductive approach
Judah is thinking deductively and herchsman is inductively
Sometimes political loyalty and political obligation conflict with one another. When our
parents left home, there must have been conflicts between both political loyalty and
obligation at some point in the decision making process.
Exile- forcible removal of one from a country
External Exile Vs Internal Exile
Japanese Americans- are they exiles , or they socially excluded ?
They were put in internment camps, and they are not allowed to leave America. So although
they arent exile by leaving the country but they were socially excluded from others
Internal exile henry David Thoreau
He objected the American idea of slavery
He wrote petitions protests and did his best to take away slavery
And then decided to not pay his taxes and made a voluntary choice to be an exile with in his
He said he dues obligation to the republication of conscience
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