POLD52H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: Foreign Worker, Jus Sanguinis, Illegal Entry

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POLA81
Leaving Home: The Politics of Migration
Multiculturalism:
Multiculturalism usually and most often refers to how diverse a culture can be or a community. In
a political science reference, multiculturalism has to do with individuals identifying themself in a
distinct country. Everybody has a unique background yet it isn’t always easy expressing it in a
place other than your motherland. Multiculturalism is a feel good celebration of ethno-cultural
diversity. Individuals are encouraged to acknowledge and embrace the array of customs,
traditions, music and cuisine in a multiethnic society. To be multicultural, it is in a sense to take
these cultural statements such as music and cuisine and apply and treat them as practices that
should be preserved by their members and safely consumed by others. One can learn to be
multicultural, it happens to take place everywhere. It is taught in schools, performed in festivals,
displayed in the media and museums, etc. Multiculturalism is a rejection of coercive assimilation,
this means that integrating into a new community or country is a choice and by all means is not
mandatory to comply to. For immigrants, this is a great asset and privilege because there are a lot
of things are fair for them. Countries have greater respect for one’s culture and they take great
effort in helping to maintain cultures while encouraging fair integration. Multiculturalism also
consists of recognition, acceptance and positive valuation of diversity. For example, in today’s
society there are a lot of Hakka-Chinese restaurants such as Frederick or Lucky’s that many
Canadians of different cultures go out to eat to. Canadians have come to terms that
multiculturalism is everywhere. The roots of multiculturalism first started after WWII when
people came to accept that everyone is equal and human rights were implemented. This was a
time when racial discrimination was being rejected. In Canada, multiculturalism was first
accepted in 1971 officially as a multicultural policy and enshrined in our Constitution. There was
a tremendous amount of support in the high levels of immigrations, therefore accepting that
immigrants were beneficial. After the WWII atrocities, countries started to partake in
multicultural citizenship, groups who were previously suppressed deserved special rights to
make-up for the power imbalances. For example, there are national minorities who received self-
government rights, historically disadvantaged groups (women, racialized minorities) had received
affirmative action rights and immigrants received polytechnic rights. The polytechnic rights
consist of the right to translation in court as well as hospitals, the right to make exemptions from
dress codes and accommodations for religious practices. Multiculturalism provides a place for
mutual identification between Canadian born and immigrants. It allows us to be a part of “our”
national identity; something we’re proud of. Also being Canadian is letting people be in favour of
diversity, tolerance and multiculturalism. If alone 61% consist of multiculturalism, then that alone
strengthens our national identity. However since the past 40 years, much debate has been going
around about the legal and political accommodation of ethnic diversity around the world. A
consensus in fact shows that people agree we are living in a post-multicultural era. A time where
there is a “rise and fall in multiculturalism” that is affecting many cultures. There have been calls
for retreat; “return of assimilation”. People believe the accommodation of diversity has “gone too
far” and it is affecting cultures and the society. It ignores certain issues of economic and political
inequality, the focus on celebrating “authentic” cultural practices that are “unique” to each group
can be potentially dangerous, and the encouragement of a conception of group that produces its
own distinct practices can create discrimination or a stereotype and perceptions of minorities can
change to “others”. Slowly, the movement is pulling away from multiculturalism in society and
leaning on civic integration, in which people are forced into learning a language or certain
attitudes to pursue their stay in a country.
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Multiculturalism Policy Index:
This is initially a research project that was initiated by Banting and Kymlicka at Queens
University. It is a scholarly research project that monitors the evolution of multicultural policies
in 21 Western democracies around the world. It was designed to provide information about
multicultural policies in a standardized format that aids cooperative research and contributes to
the understanding of state-minority relations. It provides an index at three points in time; 1980,
2000, 2010. It studies three types of minorities; immigrant groups, historically national
minorities, and indigenous people. Multiculturalism has been weak since the early 1970s until the
mid 1980s, but after looking at the Multiculturalism Policy Index, it shows a strong relation that
diversity cultures have been increasing and growing all around the world. This index evaluates
and compares eight different aspects of multicultural policies. It looks at the legislative
affirmation, school curriculum, media representation, exemptions from dress codes, allowing dual
citizenships, funding of ethnic organizations, minority-language educations, and lastly affirmative
action. According to the two researchers who initiated this project, many people are throwing
debates around whether multiculturalism is discontinuing and slowly making its way towards
civic integration. This Index however shows the real answer and from the looks of it, the
researchers believe that they are certain with the test results that are given with the index that
there are not any negative affects of multiculturalism.
- Compare this to Canada for an example:
http://www.queensu.ca/mcp/minoritynations/evidence/NationalMinorities.pdf
Civic Integration:
Civic integration is an expectation that immigrants become more like the majority society with
respect to many factors like, language, informal conventions (political culture) and adopting
“our” values. As well integration and solidarity can be based on two dimensions: economic and
social. The economic dimension shows that being a contributing member of a society by having a
job means successful integration. This shows that you are willing to pay taxes, play a bigger part
by helping the country you are living in. In a social dimension, people give their effort in
maintaining a means of solidarity – a feeling of togetherness in a situation in which society is
very diverse. Civic integration is based on assimilation, having individuals comply to become
much like the majority of society. For example, in Quebec they want individuals to be more
assimilated and keeping their French language in tact by only having schools in francophone
languages rather than Anglophone. This shows a sense of assimilation in having people adapt to
what a country wants them to. However, there is a strong controversy between multiculturalism
arguing against civic integration. People believe that civic integration is superficial, how it tends
to seem like they celebrate the ethnic dress and food but fail to understand the deeper meaning of
cultural differences. Also civic integration seems to ignore problems with cultures such as
patriarchy. Multiculturalism seeks more aggressive policies from the civic integration perspective
such as, segregation rather than solidarity and protecting cultures by granting them
accommodation rights. Despite the controversies, civic integration does have a few advantages
that positively affect minorities. They put greater emphasis on compelling immigrants to integrate
by having mandatory compulsive tests often tied to many benefits. For example, citizenship tests
can be one of them that display whether an individual is fit for a country’s rules and what to
expect from them. The second aspect of civic integration that is widely accepted and positive is
having less tolerance for accommodation. For example, in Quebec’s charter actively rejects civil
servants from having the right to wear certain religious attire. This however will not be tolerated
because it goes against “our” values such as secularism, gender equality, etc. In the future, civic
integration seems to be a prospect that might take over multiculturalism as some people do say so
but only time will tell.
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Brain Drain:
Brain drain refers to highly skilled workers that leave their country of origin, region, or economic
sector in order to take a job somewhere else. This usually refers to highly skilled and trained
workers; those who have experienced a great deal of education such as completed their high
school and achieved a degree through university or college. Also, these are the workers that
expect to get paid a great deal of money for their skills. The state/country the skilled person is
leaving or emigrating from is considered “brain drain” because their economy is losing a person
who could’ve been beneficial to their economical status. In fact, 70% of university graduates
from Jamaica and Guyana tend to move to developed countries. Some developing countries such
as the Caribbean or parts of Africa only possess a small percentage of skilled university people
and it affects them significantly in their private and public sectors. It causes a great depletion of
human capital. There are concerns that are raised by the cost of emigrating health care
professionals from developing countries. For many less-developed nations, the number of
medical professionals that leave their countries have affected and imperiled already weak public
health systems. For example, in Malawi, they have lost less than half of their nursing staff to
emigration for over 4 years now. This leaves them 366 nurses to serve and aid to a population of
about 12 million people. There are many reasons for why these problems happen in developing
nations. For one, high rate of unemployment is constantly occurring in developing countries,
which does not help skilled workers at all. In fact, this motivates them to leave their nation as
soon as they get the chance to better their lifestyle and prevent them from being unproductive at
home. Also in many countries, there is a high rate of kidnapping and crime that takes place, such
as in South America, which is a common explanation why people tend to emigrate. Lastly,
graduates tend to get fed up with their life at home because of the mere necessities their country
does not have. For example, doctors get frustrated when there are inadequate resources or weak
public health systems. Where do they apply the great skills they’ve mastered if they don’t have
the right assets to use it on? Some people however believe this is a great idea, the prospect of
migration allows people to invest their time in education in order to escape from this type of
society. Without this, people would choose to underinvest in their education, and require not
doing a lot in order to get little opportunity. The only option they see when people go to school to
educate themselves is the choice of migrating to another country to earn money in which they
can’t acquire in their homelands.
- Compare to Brain gain  Fiji and Philippines = doctors/nurses = private educational classes to
teach low-income people  benefit because they stay at home
Remittances:
A remittance is a transfer of money by a foreign worker to his or her country of origin. A lead
economist at the World Bank, Dilip Ratna, had said that money sent by migrant workers to their
homes and families constitutes the largest financial inflow to many developing countries,
exceeding international aid. Remittances play an increasingly important role in the economies of
many countries; contributing to their economic growth and to the livelihoods of less prosperous
peoples and families. Statistics show that in 1990 there was a remittance of $31.1 billion flowing
and in 2010 $316 billion. As well, in 1995, there was a 57% remittance flow and since 2005 now,
there is a 72% a great increase. Kofi Annan called remittances “the most immediate and tangible
benefit of international migration.” The dramatic increase in recorded remittances in the past 20
years can be explained by a number of factors for example: better measurements of remittance
flows, closer scrutiny of money transfers since September 11, 2001 attacks, reduction in
remittance costs, the deprecation of the US dollar, relative rise in the value of other currencies,
and lastly the growth in the stock market and their incomes. There have been slight declines of
remittances during the 2008-2009 global recessions, affecting many countries. In fact, remittances
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Document Summary

Multiculturalism usually and most often refers to how diverse a culture can be or a community. In a political science reference, multiculturalism has to do with individuals identifying themself in a distinct country. Everybody has a unique background yet it isn"t always easy expressing it in a place other than your motherland. Multiculturalism is a feel good celebration of ethno-cultural diversity. Individuals are encouraged to acknowledge and embrace the array of customs, traditions, music and cuisine in a multiethnic society. To be multicultural, it is in a sense to take these cultural statements such as music and cuisine and apply and treat them as practices that should be preserved by their members and safely consumed by others. One can learn to be multicultural, it happens to take place everywhere. It is taught in schools, performed in festivals, displayed in the media and museums, etc.

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