POLA81 – Leaving Home: The Politics of Migration
Definition: A group that exhibits solidarity in the
face of other groups, that has a set of institutions
that possesses a monopoly on rule-making and
legitimate use of force within a boundary territory.
Nation states began in the peace of Westphalia in
Relation to OC&T: A nation-state can help illustrate
why people im/emigrate and the way im/emigration
is made possible. Key component of the sovereign
power of states is the monopoly of movement.
Example: of a nation state: Canada
2. Mercantilist Period
Definition: Mercantilism was an economic system
embraced by many European countries from the
15th to 18th centuries which operated under the
assumption that an entity (be it a corporation,
nation, or an individual) should always sell more
than they buy, which would, in theory, result in
greater monetary wealth for said entity. The time
when states controlled movement of trade, during
the 18th century, until the 19 hundreds, before WW1.
Importance: Mercantilism was a cause of frequent
European wars in that time and motivated colonial
Relation to OC&T:
Example: China exports more than they import.
3. Self-Limited Sovereignty
Definition: when the ability to limit migration is
limited by the state itself, through it’s extended
invitations to foreigners, and it’s constitution.
in Joppke’s article.
Importance: makes it difficult to say yes/no in
certain situations when a state has a constitution that
outlines that the state cannot ask people to live, and
everyone has a right to life.
Relation to OC&T: This is important in
consideration to when a person enters a country
with an extended residency permit, as it will allow
them to stay in the country and bring their family as
well. Key component of the sovereign power of
states is the monopoly of movement.
Example: Germany limited its migration through
it’s constitution by outlining that it cannot ask
anyone to leave. Counter Example: Britain lacked
written constitution w/individual rights and
parliamentary system enabled stricter family
4. Indentured Labor
Definition: Indentured labor took the place of
slavery after it’s abolishment in the British Empire
by Britain in the 1830s. Indentured labor involved
employers providing housing, food, coverage of
necessities, and “supposedly” paying workers for
their labour. This often resulted in the worker in
debt, as the employer enforces that they pay for
commodities by working them off, and also results
in a growing debt for the labourer, as the employer
requires the labourer to pay off any other
“accidental fees” ie. a broken mug. (They often
overcharge for these things). Technically slavery.
Importance: This promoted not only slave work far
after it’s abolishment, but also the spread of
Relation to OC&T: Important to migration as
workers who were once politically recognized as
slaves, were still doing slave work and were
migrating to different areas of the world to perform
these slavery tasks.
Example: The abolishment of slavery by the Brits,
resulted in indentured labor provided by Asians.
5. Social Darwinism
Definition: the application of Darwin’s “survival of
the fittest” theory in a social perspective: neglecting
and/or discriminating against marginalized groups
due to their intellectual and moral inferiority.
Basically, those who excel in life are more likely to
live and produce other generations of successful
people. Scientific racism. Used in 19th and early 20th
Importance: Provided a means of being racist.
Relation to OC&T: Explains diversity rates in
countries around the world.
Example: White people in Canada and US were
wanted, but head tax on Chinese.
6. Gap Hypothesis
Importance: Shows a major disparity in what the
people want and what the gov’t does.