POLD89H3 Study Guide - Final Guide: European Social Fund, Structural Funds And Cohesion Fund, European Regional Development Fund
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1. Association of Southeast Asian nations (ASEAN) - is a geo political and economic organization of 10
countries located in South East Asia which formed in 1967. It aims to accelerate economic growth, social
progress cultural development, protection of peace and stability among its members which include
Indonesia, Malaysia, Cambodia and Vietnam.
2. Bretton Woods System ± a system of monetary management which established the rules for commercial
DQGILQDQFLDOUHODWLRQVDPRQJWKHZRUOG¶VPDMRULQGXVWULDOVWDWHVLQ the mid 20th century. It was the first
example of a fully negotiated monetary order intended to govern monetary relations among independent
nation-states. It was created when 730 delegates from 44 allied nations met at the Mount Washington hotel
in Bretton Woods New Hampshire with the purpose of rebuilding the international economic system after
WW2. They set up a system of rules, institutions and procedures to regulate the international economy
including the International Bank of Reconstruction and Development, the IMF and the WB.
3. Cold War - (1945±1991) was the continuing state of political conflict, military tension, and economic
competition existing after World War II (1939±1945), primarily between the USSR and its satellite states,
and the powers of the Western world, including the United States. Although the primary participants'
military forces never officially clashed directly, they expressed the conflict through military coalitions,
strategic conventional force deployments, a nuclear arms race, espionage, proxy wars, propaganda, and
technological competition, e.g. the Space Race. Despite being allies against the Axis powers, the USSR, the
US, the United Kingdom and France disagreed during and after World War II, especially about the
configuration of the post-war world. At war's end, they occupied most of Europe, with the US and USSR
the most powerful military forces. The Soviet Union created the Eastern Bloc with the eastern European
countries it occupied, annexing some as Soviet Socialist Republics and maintaining others as satellite
states, some of which were later consolidated as the Warsaw Pact (1955±1991). The US and some western
European countries established containment of communism as a defensive policy, establishing alliances
(e.g. NATO, 1949) to that end. Several such countries also coordinated the rebuilding of Western Europe,
especially western Germany, which the USSR opposed. Elsewhere, in Latin America and Southeast Asia,
the USSR fostered communist revolutions, opposed by several western countries and their regional allies;
some they attempted to roll back, with mixed results. Some countries aligned with NATO and the Warsaw
Pact, yet non-aligned country blocs also emerged. In the 1980s, the United States increased diplomatic,
military, and economic pressures against the USSR, which had already suffered severe economic
stagnation. Thereafter, Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev introduced the liberalizing reforms of
perestroika ("reconstruction", "reorganization", 1987) and glasnost ("openness", ca. 1985). The Soviet
Union collapsed in 1991, leaving the United States as the dominant military power, and Russia possessing
most of the Soviet Union's nuclear arsenal.
4. Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) -
a. The creation of a common agricultural policy was proposed in 1960 by the European Commission.
It followed the signing of the Treaty of Rome in 1957, which established the Common Market.
b. CAP is a system of European Union agricultural subsidies and programs. It represents about 44%
c. The six member states individually strongly intervened in their agricultural sectors, in particular
with regard to what was produced, maintaining prices for goods and how farming was organized.
d. Its main objectives are: 1) To increase productivity, by promoting technical progress and ensuring
the optimum use of the factors of production, in particular labor; 2) To ensure a fair standard of
living for the agricultural Community; 3) To stabilize markets; 4) To secure availability of
supplies; 5) To provide consumers with food at reasonable prices.
5. Cosmopolitanism -
a. Argue that morality is universal: a truly moral rule/code is applicable to everyone.
b. The idea that humans should be considered as a single moral community with some rules that
applies to everyone.
c. The ultimate source of meaning and value in human life resides in the individual (or God).
d. Argue that despite this division of humanity into separate communities it is possible to identify
with and have a moral concern for humanity.
e. Humanity = single moral community and includes: There are no good reasons for ruling any
person out of ethical consideration; definition of the obligations and rules that govern the universal
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f. Major tasks: defend moral universalism; explore what it means to follow the CI in a world divided
6. Dumping - the act of a manufacturer in one country exporting a product to another country at a price which
is either below the price it charges in its home market or is below its costs of production. Advocates of free
markets see "dumping" as beneficial for consumers and believe that protectionism to prevent it would have
net negative consequences. Advocates for workers and labourers however, believe that safeguarding
businesses against predatory practices, such as dumping, help alleviate some of the harsher consequences
of free trade between economies at different stages of development.
7. Europeanization - in political science has been referred to very generally as 'becoming more European
like'. This emphasises what is known as the 'top-down approach' to Europeanization with change
emanating from the impact of the Union onto the national policy. The state is viewed as re-active towards
changes in the union. From a 'bottom-up' approach Europeanization occurs when states begin to affect the
policy of the European Union in a given area.
8. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) - a measure of foreign ownership of productive assets, such as factories,
mines and land. Increasing foreign investment can be used as one measure of growing economic
globalization. Maps below show net inflows of foreign direct investment as a percentage of gross domestic
9. Francis Fukuyama ± Is the writer of the book The End of History and the Last Man (1992) expanding on
his 1989 essay "The End of History?´ published in the international affairs journal The National Interest. In
the book, Fukuyama argues that the advent of Western liberal democracy may signal the end point of
humanity's sociocultural evolution and the final form of human government. This thesis conflicts strongly
with Karl Marx's version of the "end of prehistory". Fukuyama's thesis, coming at the end of the Cold War,
is an obvious reference to Marx's phrase. However, Fukuyama draws from the work of the source Marx got
the phrase from, the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. In particular, Fukuyama is
influenced by the interpretation of Hegel by the French thinker Alexandre Kojève, both arguing that the
historical progression has led towards secular free-market democracy (conceived in terms of a multi-party
system of political representation). Fukuyama seems to have been pointed in Kojève's direction by the
prominent Straussian political philosopher Allan Bloom, who taught Fukuyama.
10. Global Warming - increasing temperatures in earth's near-surface air and oceans;
a. It is commonly believed that most of the observed temperature increase since the mid-1900's was
caused by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
b. Increasing greenhouse gases (mainly, but not exclusively, carbon dioxide) in the atmosphere are
the result of human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.
c. The increasing temperature can cause polar/glacial ice to melt, increasing sea levels.
d. Global warming is truly a global issue, it something that will affect human activities around the
world; international cooperation is needed to solve this problem.
e. The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
(IPCC) are examples of 2 organizations that bring scientists together from around the world to
analyze and assess global warming.
f. The Kyoto Protocol attempted to commit developed nations to cut greenhouse gas emissions,
though the Protocol was undermined by the absence of the US.
11. Great Depression* - The Great Depression was a worldwide economic downturn starting in most places in
1929 and ending at different times in the 1930s or early 1940s for different countries. It was the largest and
most important economic depression in the 20th century, and is used in the 21st century as an example of
how far the world's economy can fall. The Great Depression originated in the United States; historians
most often use as a starting date the stock market crash on October 29, 1929, known as Black Tuesday.
The depression had devastating effects in virtually every country, rich or poor. International trade plunged
by half to two-thirds, as did personal income, tax revenue, prices and profits. Cities all around the world
were hit hard, especially those dependent on heavy industry. Construction was virtually halted in many
countries. Farming and rural areas suffered as crop prices fell by roughly 60 percent. Facing plummeting
demand with few alternate sources of jobs, areas dependent on primary sector industries such as farming,
mining and logging suffered the most. It was triggered by a certain total collapse in the stock market.
a. The global economic collapse beginning 1929, lasted until the late 1930's to early 1940's.
b. Following the US Wall Street stock-market crash in October 1929 (Black Tuesday).
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c. Even in 1929, foreign investment and trade were interconnected via the global network.
d. Virtually every country was affected ± rich and poor.
e. Personal income, profit, revenue, construction and international trade all dropped dramatically.
f. Unemployment skyrocketed (25-33% unemployment, depending on country).
g. Ended just prior to WWII
h. Can be used to demonstrate how far the world's economy can decline and how interconnected the
world economy is.
12. Humanitarian Intervention - The act of one or more states of the international community intervening in
the affairs of a sovereign state due to a states lack or collapse of government, leading to a large-scale loss of
life or genocide;
a. The United Nations Security Council is an international organization responsible for the protection
of human rights and has the power to authorize military intervention.
b. Examples LQFOXGH1$72¶VLQWHUYHQWLRQLQ.RVRYRDQGWKH81¶VQRQ-intervention in Rwanda.
c. Those against humanitarian intervention argue that a state chooses to intervene not only to protect
human rights, but also on the basis of their own self-interests. States will not intervene if their own
self-interests will not be met as they refuse to risk the lives of their soldiers.
13. Intergovernmental Organization (IGO) - ,*2¶VDUH LQWHUQDWLRQDO RUJDQL]DWLRQVZKRVH PHPEHUVDUH
sovereign states. Decisions are made by representatives from each member state. Many of their goals
involve promoting peace and increase relations among states. State involvement also aims to increase
economic wealth and security. ·Those against such organizations argue that involvement reduces state
Examples include; the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the United Nations (UN), and the
European Union (the EU).
14. ILO - Stands for the International Labour Organization and is a part of the United Nations;
a. Founded in 1919 and became the first specialized agency of the UN.
b. Brings together governments, employers and workers to shape policies and programs.
c. Responsible for drawing up international labour standards.
d. Established to advance opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work in
conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity.
e. Its main aims are to promote rights at work, encourage decent employment opportunities, and
enhance social protection.
f. Works to bring countries out of poverty by encouraging more work.
15. IMF - Stands for the International Monetary Fund;
a. Established in 1948 during the Bretton Woods conference along with the World Bank.
b. Established to provide short-term emergency funding, international monetary cooperation, a stable
exchange rate system, and offer advice to governments and central banks on economic policies.
c. The IMF shifted its role after the 1970s due to the oil shocks.
d. Began focusing on developing countries facing poverty (like the World Bank).
e. Came under scrutiny in 1980s during the Third World Debt Crisis.
f. Loaned money to countries that were already in loan, thus these third world countries were not
able to return the loans.
g. Why would they create more loans for countries that were already in debt?.
h. Countries who require loans after a financial crisis or disasters ask for loans from the IMF.
i. Countries who contribute more to the finances of the IMF have more power in the decisions made.
j. United States holds 18% of the power because they funded the most money.
16. Immanuel Wallerstein is an American Sociologist and protagonist. He believed that history was marked
by the rise and demise of a series of world systems. He elaborated on the idea of Modern World System
which emerged in Europe in the 16th Century. He believed that the driving force behind the process of
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been developed by a number of other writers who have built on his initial foundational work.
17. International Human Rights Regime is an established feature of contemporary world society and a good
example of the processes of globalization. It is grown around the idea that individuals possess rights simply
by virtue of being human, and of sharing in a common humanity.
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