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Pol Sci terms


Department
Political Science
Course Code
POLD89H3
Professor
Waldemar Skrobacki

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Examterms:POLA83H
ASEAN:
AgeopoliticalandeconomicorganizationofseveralcountrieslocatedinSouthEastrAsia.Initiallyformed
asadisplayofsolidarityagainstcommunism,itsaimnowhavebeenredefinedandbroadenedtoinclude
theaccelerationofeconomicgrowthandthepromotionofregionalpeace.By2005theASEANcountries
hadcombinedforaGDPof$884billion.
BrettonWoodsSystem:
Itwascreatedtoavoidanotherwar,anotherdepression,toinfluencebusinesscycle,andtokeepthe
worldstable.AttheBrettonWoodsConferencein1944itwasagreedthatallcountries’currencies
wouldbefixedatacertainvalue.TheybecamefixedtothedollarandtheUSgovernmentpromisedto
convertalldollarstogoldat$35perounce.In,otherwords,exchangerateswereanchoredtoadollarr
goldstandard.IntheBrettonWoodsSystem,anycountrywantingtochangethevalueofitscurrency
hadtoapplytotheIMFforpermission.Theresultwasverystableandunchangingexchangerates.
ColdWar:
Extendedworldwideconflictbetweencommunismandcapitalismthatisnormallytakentohavebegun
in1947andconcludedin1989withthecollapseoftheSovietPowerinEurope
CommonAgriculturalPolicy(CAP):
TheCAPcombinesadirectsubsidypaymentforcropsandlandwhichmaybecultivatedwithprice
supportmechanisms,includingguaranteedminimumprices,importtariffsandquotasoncertaingoods
fromoutsidetheEU.Thesixmemberstatesindividuallystronglyintervenedintheiragriculturalsectors,
inparticularwithregardtowhatwasproduced,maintainingpricesforgoodsandhowfarmingwas
organized.Thisinterventionposedanobstacletofreetradeingoodswhiletherulescontinuedtodiffer
fromstatetostate,sincefreedomoftradewouldinterferewiththeinterventionpolicies.Some
MemberStates,inparticularFrance,andallfarmingprofessionalorganizationswantedtomaintain
strongstateinterventioninagriculture.Thiscouldthereforeonlybeachievedifpolicieswere
harmonizedandtransferredtotheEuropeanCommunitylevel.By1962,threemajorprincipleshadbeen
establishedtoguidetheCAP:marketunity,communitypreferenceandfinancialsolidarity.Sincethen,
theCAPhasbeenacentralelementintheEuropeaninstitutionalsystem.Theinitialobjectiveswereset
outto:increaseproductivity,bypromotingtechnicalprogressandensuringtheoptimumuseofthe
factorsofproduction,inparticularlabor;toensureafairstandardoflivingfortheagricultural
Community;tostabilizemarkets;tosecureavailabilityofsupplies;toprovideconsumerswithfoodat
reasonableprices.
Cosmopolitanism:
Theultimatesourceofmeaningandvalueinhumanresideswiththeindividual(orperhapsGOD).
Cosmopolitanismsaredisposedtofavorveryextensiveaccountsofuniversalhumanrights.
Dumping:
Theactofamanufacturerinonecountryexportingaproducttoanothercountryatapricewhichis
eitherbelowthepriceitchargesinitshomemarketorisbelowitscostsofproduction.Priceandlabor
costsrAstandardtechnicaldefinitionofdumpingistheactofchargingalowerpriceforagoodina
foreignmarketthanonechargeforthesamegoodinadomesticmarket.Thisisoftenreferredtoas
sellingatlessthan"fairvalue".
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Europeanization:
ThenotionofEuropeanizationisbecomingamajorpartofresearchonEuropeanintegration.Becauseit
isstillanewanalyticalframework,Europeanizationhasbeendefinedinmanyways.
A.Risse,GreenCowles,andCaporasodefineitas“theemergenceandthedevelopmentattheEuropean
levelofdistinctstructuresofgovernance.B.Featherstoneofferstwodefinitions:“maximalist,”aprocess
thatinduceschangesthat“predominatein,orarecloselyidentifiedwith,‘Europe,’”and“minimalist,”
whichis“aresponsetothepoliciesoftheEuropeanUnion.”C.Vink’s“workingdefinitionidentifies
Europeanizationas“domesticchangecausedbyEuropeanintegration.”4
Otherwayof“defining”Europeanization:
1.WearethegreatestÆcolonialexpansion2.SomeofusaregreaterthanothersÆ“colonial”
expansionwithinEurope3.IntellectualtraditionofliberaldemocracyÆconstructivism4.Impactof
EUinstitutions,bothformalandinformal,ondomesticpoliticsofMemberStates:deathpenalty,
democraticelections,etc.
FDI:
Foreigndirectinvestmentreflectstheobjectiveofobtainingalastinginterestbyaresidententityinone
economy(‘‘directinvestor’’)inanentityresidentinaneconomyotherthanthatoftheinvestor
(‘‘directinvestmententerprise’’).Thelastinginterestimpliestheexistenceofalongrtermrelationship
betweenthedirectinvestorandtheenterpriseandasignificantdegreeofinfluenceonthemanagement
oftheenterprise.Directinvestmentinvolvesboththeinitialtransactionbetweenthetwoentitiesandall
subsequentcapitaltransactionsbetweenthemandamongaffiliatedenterprises,bothincorporatedand
unincorporated.
FrancisFukuyuma:(article“TheEndofHistory”)
Hearguedthatmankindhasreachedtheendofhistoryandthatnationalsovereigntynolongerexists.
Mainclaimthatthepoweroftheeconomicmarketisresultinginliberaldemocracyreplacingallother
typesofgovernmentbecauseotherformscannotdelivertheeconomicgoodsinthewayliberal
democracycan.Alsoliberalstatesweremorestableinternallyandmorepeacefulintheirinternational
relations.Liberalideawasthebestisgoingtoget.
GlobalWarming:
GlobalwarmingistheincreaseintheaveragetemperatureofEarth'snearrsurfaceairandoceanssince
themidr20thcenturyanditsprojectedcontinuation.Mostoftheobservedtemperatureincreasesince
themiddleofthe20thcenturyhasbeencausedbyincreasingconcentrationsofgreenhousegases,
whichresultfromhumanactivitysuchastheburningoffossilfuelanddeforestation.Globaldimming,a
resultofincreasingconcentrationsofatmosphericaerosolsthatblocksunlightfromreachingthe
surface,haspartiallycounteredtheeffectsofwarminginducedbygreenhousegases.Anincreasein
globaltemperaturewillcausesealevelstoriseandwillchangetheamountandpatternofprecipitation,
probablyincludingexpansionofsubtropicaldeserts.[4]Warmingisexpectedtobestrongestinthe
Arcticandwouldbeassociatedwithcontinuingretreatofglaciers,permafrostandseaice.Otherlikely
effectsincludechangesinthefrequencyandintensityofextremeweatherevents,speciesextinctions,
andchangesinagriculturalyields.
GreatDepression:
Abywordfortheglobaleconomiccollapse,thatensuedfollowingtheUSWallStreetstockrmarketcrash
inOctober1929.Economicshockwavessonrippledaroundtheworldalreadydenselyinterconnectedby
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thewebsoftradeandforeigndirectinvestmentwiththeresultthattheeventsofOctober1929were
feltincountriesasdistantasBrazilandJapan.

HumanitarianIntervention:
Humanitarianinterventionreferstothethreatoruseofforceacrossstatebordersbyastateaimedat
preventingorendingwidespreadandgraveviolationsofthefundamentalhumanrightsofindividuals
otherthanitsowncitizens.Humanitarianinterventioninvolvesthethreatanduseofmilitaryforcesasa
centralfeature.Itisaninterventioninthesensethatitentailsinterferingintheinternalaffairsofastate
bysendingmilitaryforcesintotheterritoryorairspaceofasovereignstatethathasnotcommittedan
actofaggressionagainstanotherstate.Theinterventionisinresponsetosituationsthatdonot
necessarilyposedirectthreatstostates’strategicinterests,butinsteadismotivatedbyhumanitarian
objectives.
IGOs:
Aninternationalorganizationinwhichfulllegalmembershipisofficiallysolelyopentostatesandthe
decisionrmakingauthoritylieswithrepresentativesofthegovernment.
ILO:
TheInternationalLaborOrganizationisaninternationalorganizationwhichhasalonghistoryof
improvingworkingconditionsandpromotingsocialjusticeandhumanrights.Thereasonsarticulatedfor
cooperationwerebothcompassionateandeconomic.Cooperationwasnecessarytodoawaywith
povertyandinjustice,notjusttoprotectworkers;anditwasnecessarytopreventsocialunrestthese
conditionscouldengender.Furthermore,theseproblemsmustbeaddressedattheinternationallevel,
becauseeachnationactingindividuallywouldbeatacompetitivedisadvantageifitimposedhigher
standardsunilaterally.
IMF:
TheINFmonitorssortrtermcrossrborderpaymentsandforeignexchangepositions.Whenacountry
developschronicimbalancesinitsexternalaccounts,theIMFsupportscorrectivepolicyreforms.Since
1978theIMFhasundertakencomprehensivesurveillancebothoftheeconomicperformanceof
individualmemberstatesandthatoftheworldeconomyasawhole.TheIMFalsoprovidesextensive
technicalassistance.Promotesefficiencyandstabilityinglobalmarkets.Operationinclude:stabilize
currencyexchangerates,financethebalanceofpaymentsdeficits,andadviseborrowinggovernments.
JustWarTradition:
TheJustWarTraditionisasetofguidelinesfordeterminingandjudgingwhetherandwhenastatemay
haverecoursetowarandhowmanyitmayfightthatwar.TheJWTisconcernedwithapplyingmoral
limitstostates’recoursetowarandtolimitingharmsthatstatescancommitagainstotherstates,
militaryforcesandcivilians.Itconsistsoftwoparts:thejusadbellumandthejusinBello.Wherebellum
referstotheoccasionofgoingtowarandBelloreferstothemeans,theweapons,andtacticsemployed
bythemilitaryinthewarfare.
LDCs:
LeastDevelopedNationsisthenamegiventoacountrywhich,accordingtotheUnitedNations,exhibits
thelowestindicatorsofsocioeconomicdevelopment,withthelowestHumanDevelopment
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